(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "How to Play Chess"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



D.5™t.b,Google 



GIFT OF 

A. F. Morrison 



b, Google 



D.5™t.b,Google 



CROWBLL'S HANDY INFORMATION S&BIES 

HOW TO PLAY 
CHESS 



COMPILED BY 
CHAfiLOTTE BOABDMAK BOOEBS 



NEW YORK 

THOMAS T. CROWELL & 00. 

PUBLISHERS 

D5-,.-.ii„Googic 



GVH-fS 
^7 



A r Morrison 

Copyright, 1807, 
Bi Thomas Y. Cbowixl ft Co. 



D.5™t.b,Google 



PREFACE 

In preparing the present work the com- 
piler wishes to give full credit to those 
hooks which she has had occasioQ to use 
as authorities for the general principles 
and laws of the game and for such of its 
history as the limited space of the Iktbo- 
DCCTioN permitted. The list is as follows: 
" The Chess-Player's Handhook," hy 
Howard Staunton; "Chess," by E. F. 
Green ; " The Principles of Chess in The- 
ory and Practice," and " The Art of 
Chess," by James Mason ; " The Ameri- 
can Cyclopaedia," and " The Life of Phili- 
dor," by George Allen. 

C. B. E. 

May 1, 1907. 

M99164 

D.5™t.b,Goog[e 



D.5™t.b,Googre 



CONTENTS. 



I, Intboduction 

II. The Boabd and the Men . . . 
The Game — The Board — The Men 

— Setting Up the Board — Names of 
the Pieces and Pawns — Names ot the 
Squares. 

III. Object of the Gaue and Obder of 

Pbocedube 

IV. The Moves 

King's Move — Queen's Move — 
Bishop's Move — Knight's Move — 
Rook's Move — Pawn's Move. 
V. Technical Terms Explained . . 

VI. Chess Rules 

Rules when Odds are Given — 
Kules for Play by Consultation — 
Rules for Play by Correspondence. 
VII. Suggestions fob Beoinnebs . . . i 
Familiarity with Technical Terms 

— Playing with Either Color — Value 
of Practicing One Game — Playing by 
Time — Developing the Game — The 
Value of the Pieces — Studying the 
Board. 



D.5™t.b,Googie 



vi CONTBSTB 

OHAFTEB PAQE 

VIIL. STSTraa of Notation .... 70 
EogliBh Notation — Qermaii Nota- 

IX. Practice Gahi SO 

X, Chess Opbninob 103 

The King's Knight's Opening — The 
King's Bishop's Opening — The Queen's 
Bishop's Opening — The King's Gam- 
bit — The Gambit Declined — The 
Queen's Oambit — Irregular Open- 
ings. 

XI. End Qahes 110 

XII. Middle Gaues 132 

Xin. Conclusion 148 

Chess Problems — Key to Chess 
Problems — Examples of Masterpla; 

BiBLIOOBAPHZ 161 



D.5™t.b,Google 



HOW TO PLAY CHESS 

CHAPTER I 

INTHODUCTION 

The game of Chesa originated in India 
about five thousand years ago and is the 
oldest and moat scientific game of a seden- 
tary character. The name comes from the 
Persian shah, or King which is the name 
of the principal Piece and upon whose cap- 
ture the fate of the game depends, 

TTie history of Chesa is extremely in- 
teresting as people of all nations, famous 
in all professions, have given it careful at- 
tention and study. From its origin in 
India, its popularity spread Eastward to 
China and Japan; and then Westward, 
through Persia and Eyaantium to Europe 
where, during the Middle Ages, it became 
1 

D5-,.-.ii„Googic 



3 . . - _ ^0W TO PLAT CSESB 

the far6rite-'paallHi'e."of the cloister and 
' the ^emujt ■" Jk Jhis connection it is worthy 
of note tJiftt ChesB. iatbe.enly game of the 
kind that has always been approved by 
the priesthood of all faiths ; Catholic, 
Protestant, Buddhist, and Moslem. In 
Philidor's day, during the first half of the 
Eighteenth Century, it waa the custom in 
Europe for the musicians at the royal 
chapels to amuse themselves with Chess 
when their services were not required dur- 
ing High Mass; and it was for this rea- 
son that the name of PbiUdor has lived 
in the history of Chess rather than in the 
history of music, for he was a great mu- 
sician as well as a remarkably skilled 
Chess player. 

Since the invention of the game, five 
thousand years ago, its development may 
be said to have undergone three distinct 
periods. The first lasted until about 600 
A. D., and during that time it was flayed 
by four persons, the move of each Chess- 
man being about the same as it is now, but 
a dice waa throivn to decide which 



INTRODVCTIOTf 3 

one -was to be played. The second period 
lasted from the Seventh to the SixteeDth 
Century, during which time the game was 
reduced to a contest between two persons. 
The element of chance was also done away 
with, and the dice discarded. The third 
and last stage in the development of the 
game began at the close of the Sixteenth 
Century and continues until and during 
the present day. 

During the last century, Oheas period- 
icals were introduced and public contests 
were established between famous players 
or between the different clubs. Chess as- 
semblies, tournaments, and contests for 
amateurs were also first held in the Nine- 
teenth Century which added greatly to 
the interest and general popularity of the 
game. To-day, even the daily newspapers 
give space to the subject, recording the 
moves in match tournament games so that 
a person may follow each play by reading 
his paper just as readily as if he were an 
eye-witness of the game. 

In connection with the study of the 



4 BOW TO PLAY CBESa 

game, it ia interesting to know that among 
its devotees have been such monarchs aa 
Charles XII., Napoleon I., Frederick the 
Great, Charlemagne, and Haroun al- 
Baahid; and such philosophers aa Vol- 
taire, Rosseau and Franklin. 

The literature of the game has been con- 
tributed to by writers of all nations and, 
■while the student cannot be expected to 
become familiar with all that has been 
■written on the subject, he should know, 
at least, the namea which are most prom- 
inent in connection with the scientific de- 
velopment of Chess. Among them are: 
Hanstein, Von der Laaa, Lange, and Har- 
witz, of Germany ; Cunningham, Janssen, 
Sarratt, M'Donnell, and Staunton, of 
England ; PetrofF and Kieseritzky, of Rus- 
sia; Szen and Lowenthal, of Hungary; 
Stein, of Holland ; Stamma, of Syria ; 
Philidor, Desehappelles, and La Bourdeu- 
nais, of France ; Kuy Lopez and Xerone, 
of Spain ; Dubois, Salvio, Paoli Boi and 
Del Eio, of Italy; and Morphy of the 
United States. Tho East, where the game 



INTRODUCTION 5 

origioated, has also contributed to its liter- 
ature and the Asiatic names associated 
with it are : Sokeiker, Bhazes, Suli, Dami- 
ri, Ibn Sherf Mohammed, Ghulam Xas- 
sim and Ali Shatranji. 

"While Chess is a purely scientific form 
of amusement, and one that requires con- 
stant practice and study, if a player de- 
sires to become skilled, it affords such 
pleasure to those who are among its de- 
votees and offers such exceptional oppor- 
tunities for mental development that no 
person of culture can afford to neglect it. 
Of course, the scope of the present volume 
only permits a survey of the general prin- 
ciples and laws of the game hut the com- 
piler has endeavored to give the student a 
thorough groundwork for ordinary pur- 
poses; but for the benefit of those who 
wish to go into the minutest details of the 
most scientific play, a Bibliography has 
been prepared to which the student is re- 
ferred after be has mastered the contents 
of Ae present work, 

D.5™t.b,Googie 



CHAPTER II -' 

the boabb and thb meit. 

The Game. 

The Game of Chess is played on a 
board by two persons or parties, each hav- 
ing sixteen men; eight on the first rank 
called Pieces, and eight on the second 
rank, called Pawna. 

The Boabd. 

A Chess Board is a perfect square which 
is further divided into sixty-four smaller 
squares of alternate, contrasting colors; 
one light or white, and one dark or black. 
The light colored square is always referred 
to as White, and the dark colored square 
is always referred to as Black. The board 
is placed between the two players so that 
each has a white square at his right hand, 

D5-,z,tb,C-.OOglC 



THE BOARD ASD THE MEN 7 

and one half of the board is called the 
King's Side, and the other half the 
Queen's Side, but the beginner will under- 
stand the arrangement more clearly when 
he is familiar with the men. 

The Mew. 

The Game of Chess is played with thir- 
ty-two men, sixteen of which are light in 
color and referred to as White ; and sixteen 
dark and spoken of as Black. The player 
or party on one side of the hoard has the 
Elack men while the player or party on 
the other side has the White men. The 
Chessmen are divided into two classes: 
Pieces and Pawns. When the hoard ia 
set up the Pieces stand on the first rank 
and include: 

One King of each color, indicated by 

One Queen of each color, indicated by 



D.5™t.b,Google 



S BOW TO PLAY CEESa 

Two Bishops of each color, indicated 

1.-1 

Two Knights of each color, indicated 
b,K,.„N ^^ 

Two Rooks of each color, indicated bj 



I 



Formerly the word Castle was used, 
but it is now almost obsolete, the word 
Eook being given the preference. 

The Pawns, of which there are eight of 
each color, are all alike in design and 
stand on the second rank at the opcn- 
- ing of the game. They are indicated by 

Setting ttp the Boabd. 

Diagram I shows the board arranged 
for the play. The student will note that 
the King and Queen occupy the two mid- 
dle squares, each Queen being on the 
square of ber own color. Next come the 
Bishops, one on each side of the King and 



TEE BOARD AXD THE MEN 9 

Queen; then the KnightB, and finally the 
Rooks which occupy the comer squares. 
The Pawns are arranged on the squares in 
front of the Pieces. 



Queen'8 Side. King 

WHITE. 

DIAGRAM I. 
Pieces and Fawns in Position, 



D.5™t.b,Google 



10 BOW TO FLAY CEES8 

Names of the Pieces ahd Pawns. 

The chessmen of each player are fur- 
ther named according to their positions 
upon the board. Thus, the Bishop next 
to the Queen ia called the Queen's Bishop, 
indicated by QB ; and the Bishop nest to 
the King is called the King's Bishop, in- 
dicated by KB. The Knight on the 
Queen's side is called the Queen's Knight, 
indicated by QKt, and the Knight on the 
King's side is called the King's Knight, 
indicated by KKt. The Book on the 
Queen's side is called the Queen's Book, 
indicated by QB, and the Book on the 
King's side is called the King's Book, in- 
dicated by KB. 

The Pawns are named after the Pieces 
in front of which they stand. Thus, be- 
ginning at the left (aa shown in diaobam 
i) the Pawns are called the Queen's Book's 
Pawn (QEP); the Queen's Knight's 
Pawn (QKtP); the Queen's Bishop's 
Pawn (QBP) ; the Queen's Pawn, (QP) ; 
the King's Pawn (KP) ; the King's Bish- 

D5-,z,tb,GOOgiC 



TEE BOARD AND THE MEH 11 

op's Pawn, (KBP) ; the King's Knight's 
Pawn, (KKtP); and the King's Rook's 
Pawn, (KRP). The student should fa- 
miliarize himself with the letters by which 
the different Pieces and Pawns are distin- 
guished so that he may readily identify 
them, as the names are seldom used in full. 

Names of the Sqdabes. 

The squares are named after the Pieces 
which occupy them at the beginning of the 
game. The square occupied by the Queen 
is called the Queen's Square (QSq) and 
the squares in front of it are numbered in 
order across the board thus: Q2; Q3; Q4; 
Q5 ; Q6 ; Q7 ; Q8. It will be noted from 
diagbam: II., that Q8 of the Black Queen 
is the Queen's Square of the White Queen, 
as each player counts from his own side of 
the board. The names of the squares are 
abbreviated thus: KSq; K2; K3; K4; 
K5; K6; K7; K8; KBSq; KB2; KB3; 
KB4; KB.5; KB6; KB7; KB8; KKtSq; 
KKt2; KKt3 KKt4; KKtS; KKt6 
KKt7; KKt8; KRSq; KR2; ^Si 



12 SOW TO PLAY CBB88 

KR4;KR5;KEe;KR7; KE8 ; and cor- 
respondingly on the Queen's side. If the 
student will study diagbam ii with care, 



DIAGRAM II. 
Showing the Names of the S 



he will have no difficulty in recognizing 
the different squares when reference is 
made to them, , 

D5-,.-.il„C-.OOglC 



CHAPTEE III 

OBJECT OF THE GAME AITD OBDEB OP PEO- 



The game of Chess, as already stated, 
is played by two persona or parties, and the 
object of each is to capture his opponent's 
King or place him in such a position that 
he cannot move without being taken. If 
the King is attacked, or threatened with 
capture, the attacking party must give 
warning by calling out " Cheek " ; and if 
the King, in the next move cannot avoid 
the attack he is " checkmate " or " mate " 
and the game is at an end, the person hav- 
ing first captured his opponent's King be- 
ing the winner. The student will note 
that the game stops one move short of the 
final play which takes the King. 

If, for any reason, the Kings occupy 

13 ,- i 

D.!r,ztt.b,LiOOgie 



14 BOW TO PLAY CBESa 

Buch positions upon the board that neither 
can be captured the game is drawn. 

The players first arrange the board as 
shown in diaobam i, and draw lots for 
the color with which each is to play. The 
game is generally opened by. the White 
Men. When the player who has drawn 
the White Men moves a Piece or a Pawn, 
it is his opponent's turn, and so the game 
continues, each moving alternately, one 
man at a time, of his own color and cap- 
turing only the men of the opposite color. 
Under only one condition, of which the 
student will learn later, is a player allowed 
to make two moves in succession. Until 
a student has had considerable experience, 
and learned to play a game of his own he 
will do well to move each Piece once be- 
fore he has moved any Piece twice, as this 
will enable him to keep hia forces together 
and prevent needless exposure and weak- 
ness in his <lefence and attack. 

Both distance and direction must he 
taken into consideration with every move, 
as well as the advantages that are to be 



OBJECT OF TBB GAME 15 

gained by moving any one Piece in pref- 
erence to another, but the student must be- 
come familiar with the relative value of 
the Pieces and Pawns and with their re- 
spective moves, before this can be made 
perfectly clear to him. 



p.5™t.b,Google 



CHAPTER ly 

TUB MOYSS 

In learning the moves of the various 
Pieces and Pawns, the beginner is advised 
to have a board before him and to secure 
the assistance of an experienced player if 
available; for while they are very simple 
to understand when demonstrated, their 
description in words may sound compli- 
cated. The diagrams, however, should be 
carefully studied. 

The King's Movei. 

The King may move one square at a 
time in any direction. Thus, when the 
Black King, for example, stands on Q5 
he " commands," or may move, to any one 
of the eight adjacent squares as indicated 
in DIAGRAM III. Should one of these 
squares be occupied, however, by one of 
16 ,. , 

D.5-,z,t.b,C-.OOglC 



THE MOVES 17 

his own men, lie could not move to it, or 
should his adversary, the White King, be 
near, his move would he further restricted. 



WHITE. 

DIAGRAM III. 
The King's Move. 

For example : Suppose the Black King 
stands on Q5, a Black Pawn stands on KO 
and the White King stands on K2, Now 



18 HOW TO FLAY CBE88 

the Black King commands all of the ad- 
joining squares, but he can only move to 
one of six of them and not to any one of 
the eight, as he could in diagbam hi. 
He cannot move to K6 because his own 
Pawn occupies it and also because the 
White King could move into it were he 
alone on the board. Nor can the Black 
King move into Q6, because that also is a 
square within the range of movement of 
his adversary, or one of the eight squares 
commanded by the White King were he 
alone upon the board. Thus, the sphere 
of influence of the two Kings overlaps at 
K6 and Q6 with the result that those two 
squares are neutral territory, forbidden to 
both by the fundamental laws of Chess, 
for the Kings must always have an intei^ 
val of at least one square between them. 

As the object of the game is to capture 
or checkmate the adversary's King, it is 
readily seen that he is of paramount im- 
portance, and that the moves of all the 
other Pieces and Pawns are made with 
reference to him. , 

D5-,.-.il„C-.OOglC 



the moves 19 

The Queen's Move. 

The Queen moves in any direction, like 
tbe King, but she is not restricted to dis- 



WHITE. 

DIAGRAM IV. 

The Queen'a Move. 



tance and may cover any number of unoc- 
cupied squares to the limits of the board 
in a horizontal, vertical and diagonal line. 



20 BOW TO PLAY CBE8B 

Thus, a Queen on Q4, as shown in dia- 
OBAM IV, commands twenty-seven squares. 
Owing to the squares at her command, she 
is the most powerful of tlie Pieces, but lior 
power would be disproportionally great 
were it not that she can be exchanged only 
for the opposing Queen without material 
loss. When the Queen occupies a side 
square, the sum of the diagonal moves pos- 
sible to her is always aeven. 

The Bishop's Move. 

The Bishop moves over any number of 
unoccupied squares in a diagonal lino, 
from which it will be seen that he always 
occupies squares of the same color as tho 
one on which he stands at the beginning 
of the game. As the King's Bishop is on 
a square of one color and the Queen's 
Bishop on a square of another color, at 
the opening of the game, it will be seen 
that the two Bishops are easily distin- 
guished and never interfere with each 
other. From a center square, Q4, for ex- 
mple as shown on diagrah v, the Biskip 



TBE MOVES 



commands thirteen squares. When he 
occupies a side square, however, the sum 



WHITE. 

DIAGRAM V. 
The Bishop's Move. 



of the diagonals to which he can move is 

always seven, the same as the Queeo. , 

*' ' k. ,ooglc 



22 how to plat cbeb8 

The Knioht'b Move. 

The Knight's move is L shaped and 
more difficult to explain than any of the 



DIAGRAM VI. 
The Knight's Move. 



others. He moves horizontally or verti- 
cally in any direction, two squares for- 



ward, and one square to either the right or 
the left, leaping over the intervening 
squares whether they are occupied or not. 
Thus the Xnight on Q4 commands eight 
squares as shown on diaobam vi. By 
placing the Knight on any of the center 
squares the student will see that his move 
appears to he a leap from the square on 
which he stands to the next but one of a 
different color. .From a mathematical 
point, the Enight's move is the diagonal 
of a rectangle of six squares and is as reg- 
ular as that of any of the other Pieces. 
Owing to the character of his move he is 
less liable to resistance than any of the 
odier Pieces. . 

The Eook's Move. 

The Rook moves in four directions — 
parallel to the sides of the board, and over 
any number of unoccupied squares. Thus, 
a rook standing on Q4 commands fourteen 
squares as shown in diaobam vii and 
is next in power to the Queen. 

D.5™t.b,Googie 



HOW TO PLAY CBESa 



The Pawn's Move. 

The Pawn moves forward only, one 
square at a time; excepting in the first 
move when it may move one or two squares 
at the option of the player. In moving 



THE MOVEB 25 

two squares, however, if the Pawn passes 
an adverse Pawn, it may be taken in pass- 
ing by the adversary. When a Pawn has 
advanced eight squares in any file, it must 
immediately be exchanged for a Piece of 
its own color, at the choice of its owner, 
after ■which it acts as if it were an original 
Piece just moved into that square by the 
player. 

From this it will be seen that there may 
he three or more Queens, Bishops, Knights 
or Books on the board at the same time be- 
longing to the same player, though the 
number of Chessmen belonging to each 
player can never exceed sixteen. This 
power of the Pawn to become a Piece in- 
creases its importance, in spite of its slow 
progress across the board and makes it of 
more value than would at first be imag- 
ined. A fine player may always be iden- 
tified by his judicious handling of the 
Pawns. 

While the Pawn's move is forward in 
a vertical line, its power of capturing radi- 
.ates forward diagonally. Thus if a White 



26 HOW TO PLAY CBtJSB 

Pawn occtipies QB3 and a Black Pa^vn 
stands on Q5, the White Pawn moves di- 
agonally from its QB3 to Q4 and captures 
the Black Pawn, If there were no ad- 
verse Piece to capture, the White Pawn 
would move to QB4. 



D.5™t.b,Google 



CHAPTER V 

TEOHITICAI, TESTIS EZFLAINE^ 

Adverse Piece. A Piece of the oppo- 
site color. 

Attack. This term may be explained 
in several different ways : 

(1) Any force commanding a square 
occupied by an adverse force ia said to at- 
tack the latter, though attack may exist 
without power to capture. 

(2) A combined movement of two or 
more Pieces tending to compel the adver- 
sary to abandon some particular force or 
position. 

(3) A combination against the Sing or 
his position. 

(4) The player opening the game (gen- 
erally the White), makes the attack. 

(5) A strategic move directed against 
a weak part of the raiemy's force. 

21. ,_ , 



28 BOW TO PLAY CREBS 

Blindfold Chess, or Chess Sans Voir. 
Games played without seeing either the 
board or the men. The power of playing 
at leaat one game in this way is goierally 
acquired by every player ; and persons who 
are skilled in the science of Cbeaa have 
been known to conduct as many ae a dozen 
such games simultaneously. 

Capturing. Moving a Piece or Pawn 
into a square occupied by an adverse Piece 
or Pawn and taking or " capturing " it. 
Any Piece or Pawn may be captured with 
the exception of the King, his capture is 
accomplished by " checkmate." The vari- 
ous Pieces capture according to the direc- 
tion and extent of their respective moves. 
The Pawns, however, vary from this rule 
and are allowed to move one square for- 
ward in a diagonal line from the one on 
which they stand, in order to capture an 
adverse Piece or Pawn. 

Castling. A combined move of King 
and Rook allowed to each player once 
in a game and consisting of moving the 
Rook to the square next to the King, and 



TECHNICAL TERUa EXPLAINED 29 

the King to the square on the other side 
of the Rook. After castling with the 
King's Rook the King occupies KKtSq. 
and the Kook occupies KBSq., as shown 
in DIA6BAM Tin. After castling with 



<1} Before Castling. 



(2) After Castling. 

DIAGRAM VIII. 

CsBtling With The King's Rook. 

the Queen's Book the King occupies 
QBSq. and the Eook occupies QSq. The 
conditions under which castling are al- 
lowed are: 

(1) That neither King nor Rook has 
been moved. 



30 BOW TO FLAY CBESS 

(2) That no Pieces or Pawns inter- 
vene; 

(3) That the King is not in check. 

(4) That the King does not have to 
cross and does not move to a square com- 
manded by an opposing Piece or Pawn. 

Center. Pawns in the middle field, es- 
pecially if well supported. It is usually a 
great object to keep the center intact, or 
unbroken and to break the center of the 
adversary if it be stronger, 

Chech. The warning which must be 
g^ven when the adversary's King is at- 
tacked. In such a case, the King is said 
to be " in check " and the threatened cap- 
ture must be avoided by: 

(1) Taking the attacking Piece or 
Pawn. 

(2) Moving the King. 

(3) Interposing or moving another 
Piece or Pawn between the King and the 
attacking Piece or Pawn. 

For example, if the White King stands 
on QEi and the Black Queen's Eook 
stands on QR8, then the White King is 



TECHNICAL TERMS EXPLAINED 31 

in check by the Black Rook. White may 
avoid the check by moving his King to 
QKt3, QKt4 or QKtS ; or he may take 
the attacking Piece with his Bishop sup- 
posing it to be on Qi, in a diagonal line 
with the sqnare occupied by the attacking 
Eook. 

Checkmate, or Mate. A position in 
which the King cannot by any means avoid 
being captured by the opposing force. An 
example of simple checkmate is shown in 
DiAo&AM IS. The student will see that 
if the White King remains where he 
is he can be taken by the Black Knight ; 
if he moves to KBSq. or KKt2, he can bo 
taken by the Black Bishop as both of those 
squares are commanded by him; and if 
he moves into KR2 again, he comes within 
the sphere of influence of the Black 
Knight whom he is trying to avoid. Thus, 
it will be seen that he has no means of es- 
cape. 

Close Game. A game in which the de- 
velopment of the Pieces is effected chiefly 
behind the Pawns. This method requires 



32 HOW TO PLAY CHEBa 

the greatest accuracy and judgment and 
is only adopted by the moat experienced 
players. (See Open Game). 



DIAGRAM IX. 
Checkmate. 



Vowhinaiion. The concerted action of 
two or more Pieces for a particular ob- 
ject; two or more moves for a common 



TECHNICAL TERMS BIPLAISED 33 

purpose. Skill in making efEective com- 
binations is accounted the SQrest test of a 
Chess player, 

Command. A square is commanded 
when any Piece or Pawn occupying it may 
be attacked. A Piece is said to command 
a square when it can move into it. 

Counter Attack. An indirect and ef- 
fective way of neutralizing an attack. For 
example, a combination against one King 
may be halted or destroyed by an equally 
strong combination against the other; or 
an attacked force may be successfully 
guarded by an attack upon an equal or 
greater adverse Piece or Pawn. 

Counter Gamhit. The sacrifice of some 
part of the second player's force, usually 
a Pawn, in the opening of the game to 
obtain an advantage in position. (See 
Openings and Gamlrit). 

Debut. Opening. 

Defence. The correlative of attack. 
The second player, generally the Black, at 
the banning of the game, is said to have 
the defence, as the first player is said to 



34 now TO PLAY CHESS 

have the attack. Defensive meaaurea are 
those taken to provide against or to repel 
attack. To defend a Piece or Pawn is to 
protect or support it from or against an 
adversary. 

Develop, To develop a Piece or Pawn 
is to bring it from the comparatively pow- 
erless and inactive position which it oc- 
cupies at the heginning of the game to a 
position which is more favorable for de- 
fence or attack. To develop a game is to 
bring all or nearly all of the Pieces and 
Pawns into positions of defence or attack. 

Development, The early positions of 
the forces for defence or attack. In a 
good or strong development, the forces co- 
operate without much obstruction. In a 
bad or weak development, there is need- 
less obstruction and lack of co-operation 
which frequently leads to a permanent dis- 
advantage. 

Discovered Chech, An attack opened 
upon the King by the removal of an inter- 
vening Piece or Pai,vn. Por example: If 
the Plaek King occupies KKt7, the White 



TECHXIGAL TERMS ESPLAINED 35 

BisLop occupies KKt5, and the White 
Queen occupies KKtS, by rranoving the 
£ishop the file is opened to the Queen 
and the adverse King ii attacked. Mo^ 
ing the Bishop is said to " discover 
check." 

Double Check. The simultaneous at- 
tack, by two Pieces, upon the King. 

Double Pawn. Two Pawns on the same 
file. 

End Game. The stage at which tJie 
forces of both sides have become so re- 
duced that theoretical analysis ia. again 
possible. A complete and perfect game of 
Chess is divided into three parte: 

(a) The Opening. 

(b) The Middle Game. 

(c) The End Game. 

Each of these will be discussed at length 
in later chapters. 

En Passant. Taken in passing. If a 
Pawn> in its first move, passes an adverse 
Pawn the latter, in its next move only, 
may capture it en passant as if it had 
moved only one square. Thus if there ia 
Lioogic 



36 BOW TO PLAY CBESa 

a White Fawn on Q5 and Black Fawna 
on QB2 and K2, and either of the Black 
Pawns moves two Bquares, to QB4 or K4, 
it may be captured en paaaant bj the 
White Pawn. 

En Prise. A Piece or Pawn is en prise 
when it ia not fully defended and can bo 
taken by the adversary. The term is used 
with reference to everything but the King 
and corresponds with dieck or checkmate. 
A Piece or Pawn ia en prise, while the 
King is in cheek. 

Establish. A Piece or Pawn is estab- 
lished when it occupies a position from 
which it cannot be dislodged, and whence 
it exercises a direct influence upon the op- 
posing force. 

Exchange. To take force for force. In 
it there may be equality or relative gain 
or loss. ' To win an eiEchange is to capture 
a Book in return for the loss of a Knight 
or a Bishop. To lose an exchange is to 
capture a Bishop or Knight in exchange 
for a Rook. 

False Move. A move that is contradic- 



TEOBNIOAL TEBMB EXPLAINED 37 

tory to the fundamental laws of Chesa. 
Por example, to move a Bishop like a 
King, or a Queen like a Knight, is a false 
move and subjects the player to certain 
penalties. 

Files, The rows of squares across the 
board, from one player to another and dis- 
tinguished from the Kanks which are the 
horizontal rows of squares. The files are 
named after the Pieces which occupy them 
at the beginning of the game. Thus, from 
"White's side beginning at the right, we 
have the King's Rook's file, the King's 
Knight's file, the King's Bishop's file and 
the King's file, and so on across to the 
Queen's Kook's file. (See Hanks). 

Force. A term used to refer to a Piece 
or Pawn. 

Fork. The attack by a Knight upon 
two adverse Pieces or Pawns. It is also 
used to describe the double attack of a 
Queen, Bishop or Pawn. A common and 
fatal example of a fork is found when the 
White Knight occupies K3, and the Black 
King occupies KE8, and the Black 9?J^fc 



38 BOW TO PLAY CBE88 

KKt5. The King, being in cheefe, must 
move, which leaves the Queen at the mercj 
of the adverse Knight. 

Gambit. A voluntary surrender, op 
proffer, of a Piece or Pawn by the first 
player at the early part of the game, with 
a view to subsequent advantage. 

Oame. In addition to its ordinaiy 
meaning the term has a technical mean- 
ing which is explained under " Opening." 

Interpose. To move a Piece or Pawn 
between an attacked and attacking Piece 
or Pawn. The term is frequently nsed in 
connection with the King. When he is in 
check, and a Piece or Pawn is placed be- 
tween him and the attacking Piece or 
Pawn, that Piece or Pawn is said to bo 
" interposed." 

Illegal Move, A move which, while 
not in opposition to the fundamental laws 
of movement, is still contradictory to the 
ordinary rules of play, under the particu- 
lar circumstances of the ease, such aa mov- 
ing out of turn ; moving an adverse Piece 
or Pawn ; castling to avoid check, or cast- 



TECHVWAL TERMS EXPLAINED 39 

ling after the King or Rook haa been 
moved. 

Isolated Pawn. A Pawn is said to be 
isolated when there are no Pawns of the 
same color on the adjoining files, 

J'adoube. The I'rench for " I ad- 
just " ; an espreasion that is used by a 
player when he wishes to touch a man 
that he does not intend to play or to take. 
Without this declaration, the Piece or 
Pawn touched must be moved or captured 
in tho player's next turn if the conditions 
permit 

Man. The generic name for any Chess 
figure or force, including the Pieces and 
Pawns. There are thirty-two CheBsmen, 
sixteen Pieces and sixteen Pawns, as al- 
ready stated. 

Mate. See " Checkmate." 

Mating Force. Any force that is su£B- 
cient to mate the lone King; such as the 
Queen or Rook. 

Middle Oame, or Mid-Game. That 
stage of a game when the Pieces and 
Pawns are all, or nearly all, ready for 
liooglc 



40 HOW TO PLAY CEE8B 

action ; and said to begin when theoretical 
analysis ends. Many of the most bril- 
liantly played games are brou^t to a fin- 
ish in the " Middle Game," before " End 
Game " positions are reached. 

Minor Piece. The Bishop or Knight 
in contradistinction to the more valuable 
mating forces such as the Queen or Rook. 

Move. The person who begins the 
game has the move ; a slight but uncertain 
advantage. The term is also used with 
reference to the person whose turn it is to 
play, when a critical stage of the game is 
reached, and the issues have been fairly 
joined, or the contest is drawing to a close. 
In such a case the person who plays next 
has the move. 

Notation. The syatwn or method of re- 
cording the moves of a game. 

Odds. An initiary advantage conceded 
to a weaker player by a stronger one. 
All important Chess clubs have a carefully 
graded scale of odds, marking the classes 
of players. A common gradation is given 
in the following: — 

D.5™t.b,Google 



TECSmCAL TERMS EZPL±IVED 41 

(1) Pawn and move. (Wlen a Pawn 
is conceded the KBP ia understood nnless 
another is specified.) The player giving 
the odds takes his EBP off the board and 
his adversary has the first move. 

(2) Pawn and two moves. The player 
giving the odds takes off his KBP as be- 
fore and his opponent has the first two 
successive moves. 

(3) Kni^t. 

(4) Hook. 

(5) Two minor Pieces. 

(6) Queen. 

Open File. A file having all of its 
squares unoccupied. 

Open Game. A game in which the de- 
velopment of the Pieces is accomplished 
in advance of the Pawns. Moving the 
KP to K4 as a first move on both sides 
generally leads to an open game, but open 
games depend upon the positions resulting 
from the openings, irrespective of the first 
moves. 

Openings. The first few moves in a 

game, or those by which the Pieces and 

Lioogle 



42 BOW TO PLAY CHESS 

Pawns are liberated and arranged for ac- 
tion against the enemy. Openings have 
berai a study of all skilled Chesa players 
and are a Buhject of keen controversy. 
Those which are not given in standard 
works on the subject, or are not clas8i<^ 
are called " Irregular Openings." Open- 
ings are known as ; — 

(1) Games, when neither player makes 
any concession or offers his adversary any 
initial advantage. 

(2) Qanibits, when the first player 
voluntarily givee up some part of his 
forces, generally a Pawn, for the sake of 
obtaining an advantage in position. 

(3) Counter-gambita, when the sacri- 
fice is made by the second player. 

(4) Defences, when the moves of the 
second player give the game its distinctive 
character. 

All recognized openings have some dia- 
tinguisbing name, generally one that is 
associated with some notable chess player 
or one that is identical with that of the 
inventor of the particular opening. Dif- 



TECnmCAL TEB^S EXPLAINED 43 

ferent openings will be discussed at length, 
in a later chapter. 

Opposition. The possession, by the 
King, of a certain key square which forces 
the adverse King to take up a less favor- 
able position. If the White King stands 
on K3, and the Black King on K8, then 
the King who has the move loses the op- 
position. The value of the opposition de- 
pends upon the number, value and posi- 
tion of the other Pieces and Pawns upon 
the board, but the student can not be ex- 
pected to understand it until he tas at- 
tained some skill in playing the game. 

Passed PoAvn. One that has no adverse 
Pawn in front of it, either on its own file 
or on one of the adjoining files. 

Pawns. The name given to the in- 
ferior Chessmen which stand on the sec- 
ond rank at the beginning of the game. 

Perpetual Check. A position in which 
the King finds, that by avoiding one 
check, he renders himself liable to another 
— a series of checks from which he cannot 

escape. For example ; If the Black King 

I. ,oogic 



44 BOW TO PLAY CHESS 

occupies KESq., and the White Queen oc- 
cupies K8, then the Black King is in per- 
petual check, for be can onlj move one 
Bquare at a time. To avoid the check he 
mtist move to KR2 whereupon the White 
Queen moves to KR5, again giving cheek. 
The King then moves to KKtsq. and the 
Queen again checks him from K8. Thus 
the check continues to he perpetual -wher- 
ever he moves. In all cases of perpetual 
check the game is drawn. 

Pieces. The name given to the Chess- 
men of superior value which stand on the 
first rank at the beginning of the game. 
The term is also used by some authorities 
to refer to all the chessmen, including the 
Pawns. 

Pin. A force is said to be pinned when 
it cannot move without exposing a more 
valuable Piece to attack from the enemy. 
The term is generally used with reference 
to a Piece or Pawn that is protecting a 
King or Queen. 

Pion Coiffe, or Marked Pawtu A de- 
scription of odds that is rarely given, and 



TECHNICAL TERMS EXPLAINED 45 

only when one player is much more skilled 
than the other. The superior player puts 
a cap or ring on one of his Pawns, gener- 
ally the KKtP, and undertakes to check- 
mate the adverse King with that partic- 
ular Pawn. He is not allowed to Queen 
it, and if he loses it or checkmates with 
any other Piece or Pawn he loses the 
game. 

Position, The situation of the Pieces 
and Pawns in general at any given stage 
of the game. The relative situation of 
the forces on either side, as between them- 
selves, and as they are disposed with refer- 
ence to the enemy. A player has a good 
position when his forces have free scope 
for action, and can be combined for de- 
fence or attack. A player has a poor po- 
sition when his Pieces and Pawns are 
hampered and when they cannot support 
one another for defence or attack. 

Problem. An imaginary position in 
which the correct line of play is concealed 
and has to be discovered, under different 

D.5-,z,t.b,GOOQlc 



46 BOW TO PLAY CEESa 

conditions. Problems may be divided 
into two classes: 

(1) Direct mate, in which White mov- 
ing first has to force a checkmate in a 
given number of moves, generally two, 
three, or four. 

(2) Suimate, in which White, playing 
first, has to force Black to checkmate him 
in a given number of moves. 

Problems involving other conditions are 
known as puzzles. 

Protect. To guard or support a Piece 
ly the interposition of another force be- 
tween the Piece attacked and the attacking 
Piece. A superior force ia protected or 
covered from attack by an inferior one. 

Queening a Pawn or Advancing a Pawn 
to Queen. When a player has advanced a 
Pawn to the eighth, or last, square of a 
file, it assumes the rank and power of a 
Queen or any other Piece, excepting a 
King, that the player chooses, in which 
case he is said to have Queened a Pawn. 

Ranks. The horizontal rows of squares 
across the board, from one side to the 



TECHNICAL TERMS ESPLilNED 47 

other. Thej are nmnbered from one (1) 
to eight (8), each player counting from 
hia own side of the board. (See File). 

Sacrifice. The voluntary loss of a 
Piece or Pawn in order to obtain a later 
and more decisive advantage. 

Sans Voir. See Blindfold Chess. 

Smothered Mate. A checkmate some- 
times given by the Eni^t when the ad- 
verse King is hemmed in, or smothered, 
by his own forces. 

Stalemate. A position in which a 
player cannot make any legal move, in con- 
sequence of which the game is considered 
drawn. For example; Suppose Black 
still has a King and a Book on the board, 
and White has a King and a Queen. 
Black's King stands on QR and his Book 
on QB2 ; while White's King is on QB3 
and his Queen on QB4. It is White's 
move, but if he takes his Queen from in 
front of his King, he exposes it to check 
from the adversary's Book. If he moves 
the King, then hia Queen will be cap- 
tured and the eame will have to be drawn. 



48 BOW TO PLAT CHE88 

and if he takes Black's Book with the 
QuecD, then the adverse King will he 
placed in a similar position, i. e., stale- 
mate. 

Support. A force is supported when it 
is within the range of another of the same 
color that would be in a position to cap- 
ture it were it an enemy. An attacking 
force is supported hy another Piece or 
Pawn which commands the square or po- 
sition attacked. 

Take. To capture. 

Time. A condition of modem match 
and tournament play which requires that 
each player shall make a given number of 
moves within a specified time; generally 
from fifteen to twenty moves per hour. 

To Play. To move. White's turn to 
play means that it ia his turn to move. 

Wings. The extreme flanks to right 
and left in advance on the enemy's ground. 
From White's side of the board the ex- 
treme right is the King's Wing and the 
extreme left, the Queen's Wing. 

D.5™t.b,Google 



CHAPTEK VI 

0HES8 BULES 

I. The board muBt be so placed between 
the two plaj'ere, that each has a white 
square at his right hand comer. 

IL If a board ia incorrectly arranged 
it may be adjusted, provided the error is 
discovered before either of the players has 
made more than three moves. When more 
than three moves have been made on either 
side, the players must continue the game 
without correcting the position of the 
Board. 

IIL The chessmen must be of a pat- 
tern in general use and any player may 
object to playing with men of a foreign 
design, provided the objection ia made be- 
fore the first move. A game once begun 
must be completed with the same set of 



™t.b,Googie 



50 BOW TO PLAT CBESa 

ly. If, at any stage of the game, either 
player discovera that a Piece or Pawn has 
been omitted or wrongly placed in setting 
up the board, the game must be annulled, 
no matter how far it may have progressed. 

V. The choice of color with which each 
person plays is decided by drawing lots; 
and the person who draws the White men 
is entitled to the first move unless other- 
wise agreed. In a match or series of games 
between the same players, each retains the 
color which he drew for the first game, 
but the first move of each successive game 
alternates between them. If a game ia an- 
nulled, however, the person who opened 
that game has the privilege of making the 
first move in the next game. 

VII. When odds are given, the odds- 
giver has the choice of men and the first 
move in each game unless otherwise agreed. 

VIII. The players move alternately, 
one Piece or Pawn at a time, except in 
castling; and in no case does a player 
make two moves in succession, unless they 
are given as odds. 

D5-,z,tb,Googie 



CHE88 RULES 51 

IX. If a player touch one of hia own 
Pieces or Pawns, be must move it, if he 
ran do so legally. If he cannot legally 
move it, he must move his King. If a 
player touch more than one of his own 
Pieces or Pawns, he must move any one of 
them which his opponent may select; if 
none of them can be legally moved, he 
must move his King. 

If a player touch one of his opponents 
Pieces or Pawns, he must take it if it can 
be taken legally ; but if he cannot take it 
legally, he must move his King, If a 
player touch more than one of his oppo- 
nent's Pieces or Pawns, he must take any 
one of them which his opponent may se- 
lect; or if none of them can be taken le- 
gally, he must move his King. The tmtch- 
ing of a force implies an intention to move 
or take it, according as it is the player^s 
own or his opponents; hut if a player 
wishes to touch a Piece or Pawn for the 
purpose of adjusting it on the board, etc., 
he must make his intention clear by say- 
ing " J'adoube," or words to that effect. 



52 BOW TO PLAT CBES8 

before touching it. It must al»o be under- 
stood, that in compelling a player to move 
a particular Piece, the opponent can only 
indicate the Piece to he moved, not the par- 
ticular move it shall make. 

X. A legal move is complete and irre- 
vocable 1711611 the player making it has 
ceased to touc^ the man moved, but as 
long as bis band remains in contact with 
it, he may move it to any square which it 
commands and which he has not touched 
with it during bis deliberation. If a play- 
er after taking bold of a Piece or Pawn 
touches with it all the squares whidi it 
commands, he must move it to any one of 
them which bis adversary may select 

XI. A Pawn on reaching the eighth 
rank must be queened or exchanged for 
any other Piece, except a King, that the 
player may select; and the move is not 
complete until the player has made the 
exchange. 

XII. Each player may castle once dur- 
ing a game with either bis King's Hook or 

D.5™t.b,Google 



CBE88 RVLE8 53 

his Queen's Rook under tLe following con- 
ditions : — 

(a) If neither his King nor the Book 
with which he intends to castle has been 
moved. 

(b) If the squares between the King 
and Rook are unoccupied. 

^ (c) If the King is not in check, 

(d) If the King in moving does not 
cros8 a square commanded by any opposing 
man. 

A player must make evident hia inten- 
tion to castle by either : 

(a) Moving hia King first, or 

(b) Moving King and Rook siraulta- 
neously. 

XIII. The capture of a Pawn en pas- 
sant is a forced move if no other move is 
possible. 

XIV. If B. player makes a false or il- 
legal move when it ia hia turn to play, he 
must retract it and make a legal move or 
move his King as his opponent may select. 
If he captures a Piece or Pawn belonging 
to his adversary in an illegal or false move, 



64 EOW TO PLAT CBE8B 

he must take that Piece or Pawn legally 
or move his King as his adversary may 
select 

XV". Moving out of turn is an illegal 
move. 

XVI. If a player, in attacking his ad- 
versary, fails to call " Check," he cannot 
exact any penalty if his opponent fails to 
notice the check. 

XVII. When check is given, any move 
made hy the player, whose King is in 
check, is illegal if it does not stop the 
check. 

XVIII. If a false or illegal move is 
found to have been made, in a game, all 
Buhsequent moves must be retracted, and 
a proper move made, after which the game 
proceeds as if no error had been mad?. 
But if the source of the manifest illegal 
or false move cannot be traced, then the 
game must he annulled. 

XIX. In the case of a dispute between 
the players, if the question is one of fact, 
it must be referred to a bystander or um- 
T)ire ; and if it is a question of law it must 



CHESS RULES 55 

be referred to any acknowledged author- 
ity on the game. The decision, in either 
case, must he final and accepted by hoth 
players, 

XX. Bystanders or umpires are not al- 
lowed to interfere in a game of Chess or 
with the players, except under the follow- 
ing conditions : — 

(a) When appealed to to settle a ques- 
tion of fact. 

(b) When a Piece or Pawn has been 
omitted or misplaced in setting up the 
Board. 

(c) When a false or ill^al move has 
been made, but only after another move 
has been made to allow the players time 
to discover the error. 

XXI. If a bystander interferes in a 
gome, or gives advice to either player as 
to his move, or cautions or encourages him 
in any way by voice or gesture, the game 
must be annulled, 

XXII. If a player waives his right to 
impose a penalty or agrees to depart from 
the rules of the game, he cannot demand a 



HOW TO PLAY CBESB 



like coiicesaion from his adversary. A 
player cannot impose a penalty after he 
has made his own next move or touched a 
Piece or Pawn in reply to the illegal or 
false move of his adversary. 

XXIII, When a Piece or Pawn touched 
cannot be legally moved> and when the 
King cannot be legally moved, no penalty 
can be exacted. 

XXIV. When the King is moved as a 
penalty, he cannot be castled, 

'XXV. When a game is played by time, 
and when a player is considering what pen- 
alty to inflict, the time shall be counted 
against him and not against his adversary. 

X^XVI. Each player must make a given 
nimiber of moves (generally eighteen) 
within an hour, which is arranged for at 
the beginning of the game, and if a player 
fails to make the given number of moves 
within the specified time he forfeits the 
game. 

XXVII. Each player must keep his ad- 
versary's time, but be is not obliged to 



D.5™t.b,Googic 



CHEHIS KULUS 57 

give his adversary any information con- 
cerning it. 

SXVIII. A player loses a game : — 

(a) When a dispute arises and lie re- 
fuses to accept the opinion of a bystander 
or umpire, or that of a recognized author- 

ity. 

(b) When he ceases to play and fails to 
resume within a reasonable time, 

(e) When he wilfully disarranges the 
men or upsets the board. 

XXIX. A player may claim a draw : — 

(a) When the same move, or series of 
moves, has been repeated three times. 

(b) When the same position has oe- 
curred three times, it being the same play- 
er's turn to move each time. 

(c) When, after fifty moves, no Piece 
or Pawn has been captured by either side. 

KCLES WHEIIT OduS ABB GiVE;IT. 

XXX. The player giving odds is en- 
titled to the choice of color and to the first 
move unless otherwise agreed. 

D.5™t.b,Googie 



58 BOW TO FLAT CHESS 

XXXL When a Pawn is given eb odds 
it is to be the King's Bishop's Pawn. 

SXXII. The player receiving the 
odds of a move or moves must not play 
any Piece or Pawn beyond the fourth 
rank, or beyond the middle of the board, 
before his adversary has made a move. 

XXXIII. A player giving the odds of 
the exchange may remove whichever Eook 
he may select, and he may also call upon 
his opponent to remove either Knight or 
Bishop. 

XXXIV. A player receiving two or 
more moves as odds must make those moves 
at once and they are to be counted collec- 
tively as if they were his first move. 

XXXV. A player giving a Knight or 
Eook, or two minor Pieces, as odds, may 
remove whichever Knight or Book or 
minor Pieces he may choose. 

XXXVI. A player giving a Rook as 
odds cannot castle on the side from which 
the Kook was taken. 

XXXVII. When a player undertakes 

D.5™t.b,Google 



CBE8B BVLBS 59 

to mate with a particular Pawn, he may 
not Queen it. 

2XXVIII. When a player undertakes 
to mate on a particular square, his adver- 
Bary^B King must be on the square in ques- 
tion when it is mated. 

XXXIX If a player undertakes to 
win a game in a particular way, he is to be 
adjudged the loser if he wins it in any 
other way, or if the game is drawn. 

(The rules for ordinary play apply when 
odds are given unless they are oiviously 
inapplicable). 

Rules fob Plat by CoNBtiLTATioK. 

XL. Eadi player is hound hy the move 
communicated to the adversary, whether 
such move be declared by word of mouth, 
in writing, or be made on the adversary's 
board. 

SIX If the move communicated dif- 
fer from that made on the player's own 
board, the latter must be altered. 

XLIL If a move, as communicated, 
admit of more than one interpretation, the 



60 ROW TO PLA.T CSE8B 

adversary may adopt whichever interpreta- 
tion he chooses. He muat, however, hefore 
making hia mov^ announce which inter- 
pretation he adopts, otherwise the move is 
to be interpreted according to the inten- 
tion of the player making it. 

XLIII. A player moving more than one 
man (except in castling) or moving a man 
when it is not his turn to play, shall for< 
feit the game. 

XLIV. If either player permit a by- 
stander to take part in a consultation game, 
the adversary may claim a win. 

XLV. If any bystander interfere by 
sign, word, or gesture, in a consultation 
game, such game shall be null and void. 

(The rules of ordinary play also apply 
to consultation play unless obviously inap- 
plicable). 

ItxiI.BS FOB PlAT BT CoBBESFONDENdE. 

XLVI. An umpire or referee shall be 
appointed whose decision shall be final 
upon all questions submitted to him. 

XLVII. A move is final and cannot be 



CHESS RULES 61 

recalled when dispatched hy the medium 
agreed upon before the b^uming of the 
game. If it is a false or illegal move, the 
person making it is subject to the same 
penalties that he would be subjected to 
were he playing over the board. 

XLYIII. If a move is sent in auch a 
way that it admits of more than one in- 
terpretation, the adversary may interpret 
it to suit himself. When sending hia own 
move in return, however, he must atat© 
which interpretation he used, otherwise 
the move must be made according to the 
intention of the sender. 

XLIX. A player is not obliged to send 
more than one move at a time^ and if he 
does he must abide by those moves if they 
are legal, and if not he must pay the pen- 
alties for false or illegal moves. 

I. When no penalty for delay has been 
agreed upon, the person who fails to send 
his move on or before the appointed time 
forfeits the game. 

LI. If a player accepts assistance other 

than that which may have been agreed 

Lioogic 



62 BOW TO PLAY CBESa 

upon at the beginning of the game, he 
loses the game. 

LIT, If a player sends an unintelligible 
move, he ie subject to the same penalty that 
he would have to pay if he did not send 
any move at all; but the opponrat must 
announce to the umpire that the move in 
question is not intelli^ble. 

(The rules for ordinary play also apply 
to play hy correspondence unless obviously 
inapplicable). 



D.5™t.b,Google 



CHAPTER VII 

SUOOSSTIOKS FOB DEOmilEBS 

When the banner is familiar with the 
rules of ChesB, with the moves of the vari- 
ous Pieces and Fawns, and understands 
the meaning of the technical terms used 
in playing the game, he is ready to put 
into practice what he has learned. But 
before banning the first game, there are 
a few general suggestiona which he will 
find helpful until he has acquired suffi- 
cient skill to develop a system of play for 
himself. In Chess, as in everything else, 
there are exceptions where hard and fast 
rules cannot always he followed. 

Familiabitt with Technioal Terms. 

Experienced pTayera of all games use 
technical terms with a facility that is awe- 
inspiring to the beginner; and his ignor- 



64 EOW TO PLAT CBE88 

ance of their meanings often causes him 
luch embarrassment, to say nothing of 
;)oor playing. For this reason the student 
should become thoroughly familiar with 
:he language of Chess, studying the defini- 
ions of the technical terms and illustrat- 
ing the positions on the Chessboard. 

The use of the board in studying the 
:erm8 cannot be too strongly urged, for 
only in this way can a player recognize 
character of the moves when he puts 
his study into practice. Then when he is 
a spectator of a game played by persona 
of experience — and much can be learned 
by observation — he will be familiar with 
the technical terms which apply to the 
various positions resulting from tho 



P1.AYING WITH ElTHEB COLOB. 

The student must learn to play with 
both the White and the Black men, thus 
being- able to play a game of defence or at- 
tack. In most books on the subject of 
Chess, it is generally understood that the 
D.5™t.b,Google 



aVOGEBTIONS FOR BEQiyHERS 65 

student plays with the White men, but this 
is a mistake, for when he comeB to lay 
aside bis textbook and pla; with someone 
else, he may draw the Black men which 
puts him at a disadvantage, and he is like- 
ly to make moves that are favorable to his 
opponent with the idea that the White men 
must win. He is, also, liable to move a 
White man by mistake and then he must 
pay the penalty of a false move. He will 
find it helpful to substitute Black men for 
White men in illustrative moves, and fig- 
ure out for himself to which square ft 
Black Piece or Pawn should move figuring 
from Black's side. 

Value of Peactichsg Ohb Game. 

Until a person has become a really sci- 
entific Chesa player, he cannot be expected 
to know all the different games; and as a 
little knowledge on many subjects is dan- 
gerous, the student will find it very help- 
ful to play one game over and over, pref- 
erably, of course, some match or tourna- 
ment game, nntil he is familiar withevery 



66 BOW TO PLAY CBEBB 

move and with the reasoning that prompt- 
ed it In this counection, he will do well 
to try varying the moves and seeing the 
results, as it will help him to understand 
why the particular moves made hy the orig- 
inal players were the only scientific ones 
to make nnder the circumstances. 

The student, when playing with others, 
should study a game of his own and play 
it over and over until he has corrected all 
of the weaknesses in his methods of attack 
and defence ; and he should study out for 
himself how to vary his system of play to 
meet and conquer his opponent For only 
in this way will he he able to cope with 
unexpected positions upon the Chess- 
board. It is very well to follow the rules 
and systems of scientific players, but if 
the student's opponent does not follow the 
same system and make the correct moves 
in return, the student's knowledge will be 
of little avail and luck may win for the 
igDorant player an advantage that rightly 
belonged to the one who was familiar with 
the science of the game, but who failed to 



BVGoesTioys for BminnEBa 67 

vary his general Bystem of plaj to meet 
unexpected situations. Tlie game of Chess, 
however, is like a battle and the general 
who changes his tactics too often suffers in 
consequence. The object of the game is, 
of course to checkmate the King, and be- 
fore the first move, the player should de- 
termine in bis own mind how be is going 
to do it and then develop the fighting qual- 
ities of his men accordingly. Only in this 
way can the beginner ever expect to play 
8 really scientific game. It is fatal to move 
a man without having aome object in view, 
and unless the other moves follow it up, 
any strength in position that was gained 
by that move is of no avail 

Playing bt Timb^ 

In the early days of Chess-playing, peo- 
ple used to take literally weeks in which 
to make a single move, as they wished to 
study every possible situation which might 
develop therefrom. The Chessboard would 
become grey with duct and all interest, as 
far as the spectators were concerned, would 



68 BOW TO PLAY CBE88 

be gone. To-day, conditions have changed 
and now there is a rule that each player 
must make a given number of moves with- 
in a certain period, and if a player fails to 
do this he forfeits the game. For this rea- 
son, the student should learn, from the 
very beginning, to think quickly and be 
ready to make his move when his turn 
comes. Quick playing sustains the inter- 
est of the game and adds to the pleasure of 
the players, as well as to that of the spec- 
tators. 

In Chess Clubs and in match and tour- 
nament games, a system of clocks or 
watches is used so that the length of time 
it takes each player to make a move can 
be recorded, just as time is taken in races 
and other contests of skill and speed. When 
a beginner is hurried, however, he becomes 
nervous and makes unnecessary mistakes; 
and to avoid this, he should learn to play 
by time and then he will not be embar- 
rassed by keeping his opponent waiting for 
him to make his movci. 

D.5™t.b,Google 



bvqgbbtwsb for beoiunerb 69 

Developing the Game. 

In developing a game of Cbeaa, the be- 
ginner should remember this maxim: 
Move no Piece or Pawn twice, until each 
haa been moved once. By following this 
principle none of the forces will be need- 
lessly exposed to attack from the enemy, 
for it is true of Chessmen that divided 
they fall, and united they stand. The 
student should, also, develop his game on 
both wings — that la on the King's side 
and on the Queen's side — before begin- 
ning an attack. As the student progresaea 
he will learn that there are many Chess 
openings and that each develops a certain 
line of play, which he must follow up; 
otherwise, his study of the subject is of 
no avail for the object of an opening is 
to lead up to a certain line of play, for de- 
fence or attack. 

The Value of the Pieces. 

T%e King. As the King is of greatest 
importance, the student should consider 



70 BOW TO PLAY CEEB8 

him firet, and before beginning to play de- 
termine how he is to be handled. For- 
merly, it was the custom for skilled players 
to keep this Eoyal Force in a comer out 
of harm's way, but the modem tendency is 
to develop him as a fighting Piece and 
bring him into the field. The b^inner 
must remember that the King cannot be 
castled after he has been moved and that it 
is advantageous to retain the privilege of 
castling as long as possible, if it does not 
interfere with the development of the 
game. 

WhAi attack is made on the Queen's 
wing, it is well to castle with the King's 
Kook and vice versa. Ordinarily, the King 
is safest in his own file or in the Queen's 
file, for then he cannot be driven into a 
comer from which he has no means of es- 
cape. 

The Queen, After the King, the Queen 
is next in importance; and aa the student 
has already learned, she commands more 
squares than any of the other Pieces. By 
comparing her strength with that of the 



avaaEBTiONB fob bbginnbrb 7X 

other Pieces, the Btudent Trill see that ehe 
is about double the value of a Kook, ex- 
cept in end-game positions when two Rooka 
eo^)perating could accomplish more than a 
Qneen. An adrerse Book on the aame 
rank or file as the Queen is very dangero\i8> 
no matter how many Pieces and Fawns 
may come between, and the player should 
guard against it by capturing the adverse 
Book, if it can be done without sacrifice, 
or by moving the Queen into a safer posi- 
tion. 

The Book. The Book is a mating force 
like the Queen, and two Books co-operat- 
ing are etjual iu value to three minor 
Pieces. Because of the number of squares 
which the Books command, they are of 
greatest value in end game positions, when 
the board ia comparatively clear and the 
ranks and 0es are open. The beginner, 
however, must not leave the development 
of his Books until too late in the game, for 
if he does he will find himself with bad 
positions which it is too late to remedy. 
They must not be moved, though, until the 



72 EOW TO PLAT CEE88 

player has determmed whether it is to bifl 
advantage to castle ; and if his decision 19 
in the affirmative, he must decide whether 
he will castle with the King's Book or 
with the Queen's Ibxik, before either has 
been moved. 

The Bishop. The Bish(^ and the 
Knight are of about equal value, though 
in the middle game, the latter has the ad- 
vantage. In the end game, however, the 
Knight is at a disadvantage if there are 
no other Pieces to support him, because of 
the character of his move. In this case, 
two Bishops can accomplish more than two 
Knights or a Knight and a Bishop. Bish- 
ops are particularly strong when command- 
ing long diagonals and should be devel- 
oped early in the game. 

The Knight. This Piece is equal in 
value to three Pawns and is the best Piece 
with which to begin an attack, as his move 
is not hampered by intervening forces, or 
a crowded board. Two Knights co-oper- 
ate most successfully when not protecting 
each other. To avoid attack from a Knight, 



sueaEBTioss for BEOINNERS 73 

the player should move the Piece threat- 
ened to the square next but one in the 
Bame diagonal as that in which the Knight 
atanda. He cannot then attack for three 
moves. The player who castles with his 
King's Eook must look out for an adverse 
Knight on his KB5. 

The Pavm. The Pawn is of less value 
than any of the other Chessmen and can- 
not take a very prominent part in the game 
when isolated. His greatest value is real- 
ized, however, when he forms part of a 
diagonal ; and diagonals of pawns are most 
efiEective when inclining toward the center 
of the hoard, and not toward the wings. 
As Pawns move only one square at a time, 
excepting in the first move, their progress 
is slow, but if developed together it is pos- 
sible for one or more of them to reach the 
eighth rank and be Queened. For this 
reason, they should not be needlessly sacri- 
ficed. Only skillful players fully appre- 
ciate what can be done with them, and use 
them to the best advantage. In the open- 
ing or middle game, Pawns are more easily 
>..iooglc 



74 BOW TO PLAT CBE83 

supported ou Kl or Q4, than when fur- 
ther advanced. Pawns on these squares 
should be maintained abreast as long as 
possible ; for if one is advanced, the posi- 
tion of the other ia weakened. The stud- 
ent will find it beneficial to study end 
games in which Pawns take part in the 
checkmate, and also Pawn moves in gen- 
eral throughoat the game. 

Studying the Board. 

It is of great importance that the be- 
ginner acquires a clear idea of the appear- 
ance of the board so that be can see it in 
his " Mind's Eye," when it ia not really 
before him. He should be able to tell at 
once what squares are commanded by a 
certain Piece in a ^ven position, and he 
should also be able to play on boards with 
squares of other color combinations dian 
the one with which he is familar, such as 
red and white, black and white, black and 
yellow, brown and yellow, etc. He must 
also accustom himself to play with squares 
of a difFN*ent size, though when possible, 



avaansTioNB for beqisnerb 7ti 

be should always use a board that has 
squares measuring 2 by 2, or 2^/^ by 2^ 
inches in size. Chessmen of the Staun- 
ton pattern are preferable, and they 
should always be loaded so as not to upset 
easily. 



D.5™<.b,Google 



CHAPTEE VIII 

8Y8TEU8 OP NOTATIOIT 

Notation is the method or eyatem by 
which the various moves or plays in a game 
of Chess are recorded. There are two sys- 
tems in general use ; and the student should 
become familiar with them both. The first 
and most important is the English, or 
Philidor's Notation, and the second is the 
German Notation. ■ The former system is 
used in all of the Latin and English speak- 
ing countries, while the latter is used in 
Germany and in the countries of the 
North. 

English Notation. 

In recording the moves of a game by 
the English system of notation it is neces- 
sary to indicate four things:— - 

(1) The color of the man moved. 



8YBTEM8 OF HOTATJOS 77 

(2) The name of the man moved. 

(3) The square to which the move has 
heen made. 

(4) The number of the move or turn. 
The student has already learned the 

names of the Pieces and Pawns and the 
names of the squares. He also knows that 
they are referred to 1^ their initial let- 
ters, as for example XB for King's Bishop, 
and QKt5 for Queen's Ejiight's fifth 
square, so he has now only to learn the 
ahbreviations and signs and the way that 
the moves are arranged to indicate the 
color of the man played, and the number 
of the turn when the move was made. 

For example : If the student wishes to 
record that in the first turn of each side 
White moved his King's Pawn to his 
King's fourth square, and Black moved 
his Queen's Knight to his Queen's Bishop's 
third square he could write it in the form 
of two columns, with the name of each 
color at the head thus: — 



D.5™t.b,Googie 



78 HOW TO PLAY CRE8B 

The Btudent will note that White 13 
placed in the first column aa it is generally 
understood to play first, and that the rnim- 
her of the move ia also placed hefore 
White's move, it being unnecessary to re- 
peat it before Black's move as Black's 
move, always following White's, would 
have the same number. For further abbre- 
viation the dash ( — ) is used in place of 
the word " to." If the Piece or Pawn 
moved had captured an adverse Piece or 
Pawn, the name of the force moved and 
the name of the force captured would be 
given, but instead of using the word 
" take," or " capture " a multiplication 
sign ( X ) is used. Thus if a Queen takes 
a Bishop it would be recorded QXB. 

Prequently, in notation, it ia not essen- 
tial to indicate whether it is a Piece be- 
longing to the King or to the Queen that 
has been moved, for it rarely happens 
that the player has the option of moving a 
Queen's Bishop or a King's Bishop, etc 
The Pawns are also designated only by the 
initial P. The student will also observe 



BTaTEMS OF SOTATIOX 79 

that it is not alwajs essential to indicate 
in the ease of a Queen's move to a Knight's 
square whether it is the QKt. or the KKt, 
as it is seldom that the plajer would have 
the choice of moves. Sometimes, for the 
sake of hrevity, even the dash ( — ) which 
indicates " to " is omitted and the move 
recorded PK4. In analytical works, 
even more concise arrangements of the 
moves are used, than that of arranging 
them in columns with White's moves on 
one sid^ and Black's on the other. The 
student will find them written in the form 
of fractions, with White's move as the 
numerator, ahove the line, and Black's 
move as the denominator, helow the Una 
Thus: QKt — QB3 
tJxR 
The number of the move must always 
be placed before it, parallel with the line 
which divides the White move from 
the Black move. In notes or annotations 
to a game, the moves are written as a se- 
ries with s semi-colon to separate White's 
move from that of Black. White's move 



80 HOW TO PLAY CBE8B 

lieiag placed first, thus: (1) P— K4; P— 
Q4, indicates that in the first more of the 
game White moved his Pawn to his King's 
fourth square, and Black moved his Pawn 
to his Queen's fourth square. 

Certain technical terms are also abbre- 
viated in the English system of notation. 
Those essential for the student to know 
are: 

Ch. for Check. When the Piece or 
Pawn moved gives cheek. 

Dia. ch. for Discovered Check. When 
the Piece or Pawn moved discovers check. 

E. P. for En Passant. When the Pawn 
captures en passant. 

Mate for Checkmate. When the Piece 
or Pawn checkmates. 

O'O for Castling. When the player 
castles with his King's Book. 

0-0-0 for Castling. When the player" 
castles with his Queen's Kook. 

f after a move indicates that it is a 
poor or inferior play. 

/ after a move indicates that it is a 
good or scientific plav. 

'' D5-,.-..l„C-.OOgiC 



systems of notation 81 

German Notation. 

Before taking up the study of German 
notation, the student must make a careful 



8 


1*1 


^ 


w 


^ 


ra 


ffi 


^ 


W' 




t 


i 


1 


i 


1 


t 


i 


i'' 


















e 


















6 


















1 


















8 




& 


& 


& 


& 


s 


s 


a 


S » 


a^naose^aii 



I ( h 



examination of diaqbam z, T?hidi shows 
him how the squares on a 



82 BOW TO PLAY CHESS 

Chessboard are marked off. It will be 
noted that they are indicated in a different 
■way from the English system. The ranks 
are numbered from 1 to 8, from White's 
side only and the files are lettered with 
the first eight letters of the alphabet, a, b, 
c, d, e, f, g, h, beginning at White's left 
hand side. 

For example: White's KB3, by the 
English system of notation is f3 by the 
German method ; while KB3, from Black's 
side is f6. From this, it will be seen that 
each square has a letter and a number, 
and the letter is always given first 

In recording a move by the German sys- 
tem of notation, the initial letter of the 
Chessman is given, then the square on 
which it stands, and finally the square to 
which it is moved. The omiaaion of the ini- 
tial letter shows that the move is made by 
a Pawn. A capture is indicated by a colon 
(:), placed fifter the move; a check is in- 
dicated by a dagger (f), placed after the 
move, and a capture and check is indicated 
by a douhledagger (:}:), placed after the 



BTSTEM8 OF NOTATION 83 

move. Castling is always indicated by the 
signs, 0-0, or 0-0-0, as already explained 
in the English system of notation. 

For example, the moves used to illua- 
trate the English system would be recorded 
by the German system thus : — 

■warn. BLACK. 

(1) e2— «4. EtbS— i;a 

The moves are also frequently written 
in a line or as fractions as shown in the 
English notation. 

The German System of Notation ia 
sometimes abbreviated by: — 

(1) The omission of the dash, the move 
being written e2e4. 

(2) By the omission of the initial let- 
ter of the Piece moved when it is evident 
that it could not be a Pawn. 

(3) By the omission of the square from 
which the Piece or Pawn was moved. 

FoREioiT Names of the Chessmen. 

In every country, where Chess ia played, 
the Pieces are referred to by their initial 



84 HOW TO PLAY C 





EnsHBh 


Oerman. 


g:,T?„s 


p..... 


S»edHb. 


# 


King 


Konig 


Konge 


k™,„ 


Kunr 


# 


Quod 


D.„. 


D„..,„ 


Konlndn 


Drottnlnc 


^ 


Rook 


P».™ 


T«ani 


Kuteel 


Torn 


1 


BlBhOP 


...,., 


Lober 


»„o.n„ 


Lopare 


^ 


KnlKht 


Bprlneer 


SprlDser 


P„„ 


„„. 


s 


P... 


Bauer 


Bonda 


Ploa 


„.«. 




Pre^dh. 


Italian. 


PorlUBUfne. 


Rubs La n. 


puiHah. 


# 


»., 


R. 


»., 


Tsar or 
Karal ar 


»„ 


# 


D.„. 


Donn. 


Ralnha 


«"»" 


Relaa 


I 


ro„ 


ro.. 


„™ 


LHdlB 


„™ 


i. 


"» 


A mere 


Defthlm 


SlOtlB 


Aim 


^ 


«"■•"•' 


Cavaiio 


C.v.,.o 


K.„. 


Cjiballo 


§ 


P... 


Pedone 


Peso 


PlechkB 


Pecm 



SYSTEMS OF NOTATION 85 

letters, and as the student may have occa- 
sion to study the games played by persons 
of skill in foreign countries, a table is 
given on page 84, so that the student may 
familiarize himself with the names of the 
Chessmen in the languages of the princi- 
pal countries of Europe. 



D.5™t.b,Google 



CHAPTER IX. 

PBACTICB OAMB 

Tbe Btudent has now reached a point in 
the study of Chess, when he is ready to 
play his first game, as he is familiar ■with 
the rules of play, and with the moves of 
the Pieces and Pawns. It is well, how- 
ever, for him to follow in the footsteps of 
experienced players; and as a practice 
game, he should Btudy the following game 
which was played by correspondence be- 
tween two well known American Chess 
Clubs. 

The be^nner should have his board be- 
fore him with the men set up in position 
as shown in diaobau i. He should 
then follow the moves of each play, so that 
he will understand them, and study the 
explanations so that he will know why 
each move was made. The game is called 

^* o.-,...,Google 



PBACriCE OAMU 



8T 



the Steinitz Gambit because of the name 
of the "inn who invented the opening 
moves. 

The movea are notated as foUowB: 

SiEmiTz Qaubit. 



!. P— K4. 


P— K4. 


2. Kl^-QBS. 


Kt— Q B3. 


3. P— B4. ' 


PXP. 


4. P— Q*. 


Q-R6 (ch.). 


6. K— K2. 


P— 04. 


6. PXP. 


B— KKt6 (ch.). 


7. Kt— B3. 


0—0—0. 


8. PxKt. 


B— Q B4. 


9. PXP (ch.>. 


K-Kt sq. 


10. PXB.T 


Kt— B3.1 


11. QXR(ch.). 


RXQ. 


12. B— Q2. 


R— Ksq. (ck). 


13. K-Q Bq. 


Q-B7. 


14. K-B eq. 


BXKt 


16. PXB. 


QXKKt.P. 


16. Reaigiu. 





The student will note that the game was 
played in fifteen moves on each side and 
that at White's sixteenth move, he resigns 

>..ioogic 



88 BOW TO PLAY CSE8B 

the game to Black, giving up any further 
attempt to win it 

In etudying and following the moves, 
the student must be careful to reckon 
White's moves from his aide of the hoard, 
and Black's moves from his side, other- 
wise he will make mistakes. 
P— K4 
'p— K4 

(1) White's first move is P— K4, and 
the student sees, at once, that the move is 
made with the EF as no other Pawn could 
be moved into that file. As this is the 
first move of the Pawn it can move two 
squares at a time. The advantage of this 
move is to make an opening for White's 
Eing, Queen and King's Bishop if he d&- 
sires to pl&y them in future turns. 

In Black's first turn, he makes the same 
move, and, by following the two plays on 
the board, the student will see that the 
two Pawns occupy adjoining squares in 
the same file. Another advantage in this 
play, as an opening move, is the opportun- 
ity it offers a player for gaining the center 
D5-,.-.ii„Googic 



PRACTICE GAME 89 

of the boaidj but this will be clearer to the 
student aa the game progresses. 
Kt— QB3 
'Kt— QB3 

(2) In White's second turn, he moves 
a Kt. to QB3 and the student sees at once 
that it is the QKt. that he has moved, as 
the KKt could not be moved to that square 
in his first move. 

Black follows with a similar move to 
that of White, and from. 4lie positions that 
the two Knights occupy npon the board, it 
will be seen that each protects his own 
Pawn or c<HmQand9 the square occupied 
by his Pawn. 
„ P— B4 
3. 
PXP 

(3) White's third move is to place his 
Bishop's Pawn on his Bishop's fourth 
square, and as his Queen's Knight occu- 
pies his Q^ it is evid«it that the move 
is made with the KBP. The student will 
see that this Pawn is now in a position to 
be captured by Black's KP, but this offei> 
ing of a Pawn on White's part will gain 
for him a later advantage. 



90 BOW TO FLAY CBES8 

In Black's third move, he captures the 
Pawn that White has just played and re- 
moves it from the hoard. He has also 
moved hia own Pawn from the middle of 
the hoard which better enables White to 
form 8 center which was the advantage he 
hoped to gain when he offered Black the 
Pawn. Black, however, has retained the 
advantage of force having one more Pawn 
than his adversary and if he can keep it 
he may eventually win the game. 
4 ^~^ 
'q— Re (ch.) 

(4) White, having enticed Black's 
Pawn from the center, proceeds to occupy 
it himself by moving his QP to Q4. Thia 
square, however, is commanded by the 
Black Knight, hut if he captured the 
White Pawn he would place himself on a 
square commanded by the White Queen. 
This move constitutes the Steinmetz Gam- 
hit and all games of that name must fol- 
low the moves as recorded up to thia 
]x>int. 

In Black's fourth move, he brings out 



PRACTICE OAME 91 

his Queen and movea her along the diag- 
onal that ends on E5. This, of course, can 
onl; be the KR5 aa the Queen from her 
original position would have to follow 
the diagonal terminating in QE4 if she 
played into a square on her own aide of 
the board. The student will see that whrai 
the Black Queen occupies 1R5, she gives 
check to the White King aa there are no 
Pieces or Pawns interposed between them. 
K— K2 
P— 04 
(5) Aa check has been given to White*B 
King, the only move he can le^timately 
make is one to avoid the check. As the 
student haa already learned there are three 
ways of accomplishing this: (1) By cap- 
turing the cheeking force; (2) By inter- 
poaing another Piece or Pawn; (3) By 
moving the King. The atudeut will see 
that there is only one play open to White 
and that is to move the King to K2 ; for 
if a Piece or Pawn were interpoaed it 
would be captured in the Black Queen's 
next move when she would again give 



02 BOW TO PLAY CHESS 

check, and, as tlie Book's Fawn is in the 
way, the Queen cannot he captured hy 
the Rook. By moving the King, however. 
White cannot castle. 

For Black's fifth move, he takes hia QP 
which has not yet been moved and places 
it on Q4. This opens the diagonal for 
the Queen's Bishop and for the King's 
Bishop. Had Black only moved his Fawn 
to Q3, it would have freed his QB but 
it would have interfered with the long 
diagonal commanded by the KB. It is evi- 
dent from this that Black intends to move 
his QB to KKt5 and give check with it so 
White should look out for him. (See 
DIAOBA.M zm.) 
PxP 



B— Kte (ch.) 
(6) White, however, does not notice 
that Black can give check in the next move 
but captures his adversary's Pawn with 
his own Pawn that stands on K4. The 
forces of the two players are now equal 
and the advantage gained by White is to 
place his Pawn on Q5 where it commands 

D5-,z,tb,GOOgU' 



PRACTICE GAME 



the square occupied by the Black Knight 

Black now takes the advantage gained 

by hie last move and gives check with hia 



DIAGRAM Xm. 
Position After Black's Fifth Uov«. 

QB by moving it to Kt5, -where it com- 
mands the square occupied by the White 
King. D, -,.... .,Googic 



94 EOW TO PLAY CBUSS 

Kt— B3 

7, 

O— O-O 

(7) Again, White's only I^al move is 
to avoid the check, but of the three ways 
to do it, interposing another force between 
the King and the attacking man is the 
best play, so he moves his Enight to B3. 
The student sees at once that the KKt. is 
the only one that can be moved into that 
square as tJie QKt. is out in the middle of 
the board. The Enight ie now pinned as 
it protects the King from the Black Bish- 
op, otherwise it would be in a position to 
capture the Black Queen. 

Black, in his seventh move, castles with 
his Queen's Kodc as the squares on that 
side of the board are vacant. In order 
to do this, he moves the Book to Qsq. and 
then moves the King to the QBsq. on the 
other side of the Rook. Although Black 
has left his Kni^t en pris, castling is 
his correct play for it enables him to de- 
velop his Bode which is a more powerful 
Piece than the Knight, and as the White 
King stands on an open file, Black, in one 



PRACTICE CAME 95 

more move, can give check which will force 
White to move his King. The Rook will 
then command the open file and with his 
Queen, Elack will have a very strong posi- 
tion. 

a PxKt. 
'b— QB4 

(8) White now captures the Black 
IKnight with his Pawn, Although hia 
Pawn is threatened, he is willing to face 
the danger in having won a Piece from hia 
adversary. 

For Black's eighth move, he plays his 
KB to his QB4r : the student sees, at once, 
that it is only the KB that could make this 
move for the QB stands on KKt5. This 
move places the Bishop en pris, but if 
White takes him in the next move, he 
leaves his Queen's file open to the adverse 
Rook which is likely to capture the Queen 
in his next tnm. 
PXP (eh.) 
' K— KtBq. 

(9) White takes the Pawn that threat- 
ened him and also gives check which forces 
Black to protect his King. .o,i;;i> 



96 BOW TO PLAY CHESa 

Black's only legal move is to avoid check 
by protecting his King and of the three 
ways, two are open to him, i.e., capturing 
the attacking Pawn, and moving the King. 
The latter play is preferable and his King 
commands two squares ; Q2 and Ktsq. If 
the former move were made, White would 
take the KB with his Pawn, discovering 
check with the Queen and again Black 
would have to make a move to avoid the 
check. Thus, Black's correct move is K — 
Ktsq. 

PXBI 

10, 

Kt.— B31 

(10) White captures the adverse Bish- 
op with hia Pawn, but he leaves the file 
open to the Black Rook who can capture 
the Queen. As White has now taken four 
adverse forces this play of hia, ordinarily, 
would not have been a bad move, but as a 
matter of fact it loses the game for him. 
The student should note the question mark 
( ?) after the notation of White's play. 
White can also take the Book which cap- 
tures the Queen with his Knight if Black 



PRACTICE GAME 97 

takes advantage of the open file. Stein- 
itz^ in bis notes to this game, indicates 
Kt. — Kt5 as the correct move, for then the 
Knight can protect the Queen's Pawn. 

Black, instead of taking the adverse 
Queen -with his Kook, moves his Knight 
to B3, which is a very skilful move as the 
King's and Queen's files are both open and 
if he can succeed in posting his Hooks on 
the Qaq. and the Ksq. he will practically 
have control of the board. As one Rook 
already occupies the Qsq. he has only to 
move the KK to Qsq. in his next move 
to give check with it. He can also give 
check hy moving his QE to Ksq., and as 
White cannot move his King into any 
square that is not commanded by an ad- 
verse force, and as he cannot capture the 
attacking force, he will have to interpose, 
but the only men he could interpose could 
be captured by Black, so in his eleventh 
move he has to guard against this check 
before it is given. 

D.5™t.b,Google 



98 EOW TO PLAT CBESB 

(11) White's Queen now tabes advan- 
tage of the open file and captures the 
Queen's Rook, at the same time giving 
check. 

Ab White has given check, Black must 
avoid it and there are two things for him 
to do; move the King ot take the attack- 
ing force. The latter, of course, is the 
hettet play, as the Queen, if left on the 
board, could again give check. 

At this point in the game, the student 
should study the positions of the White 
men and of the Black, and he will see that 
it is quality of position rather than quan- 
tity of men that gives Black the advan- 
tage. Black has lost a number of his men 
but the others are so well developed that 
they have far more strength than White's 
which are either pinned in or undeveloped. 
White's two Hooks and his King's Bishop 
are shut in by their Pawns and his King's 
Knight is pinned to protect the King from 
the adverse Bishop. 

i2,!z?! 

K— Ksq (ch.) 

D5-,z,tb,Google 



PRACTICE GAME 99 

(12) White might move MaQB to KB4 
and capture the Black Pa\vn but hia poai- 
tion is too critical and it ia wiser for him 
to bring his strength nearer the King so 
that if he is attacked, he can move into 
Qsq. and be protected. Tor this reason, 
the best move is QB — Q2. Another reason 
for this move is to clear the first rank for 
the Queen's Koofc. 

Black now moves his remaining Book 
to Ksq. and gives check. 

Q— B7 

(13) White must do something to avoid 
the check and it has already been shown 
how difBcult it is for him to interpose. Of 
the five squares which he commands, three 
are commanded by adverse forces; Ksq., 
KB2, K3, therefore, his only moves are 
to Q3 or Qsq. The latter is the correct 
play, as it enables him to get his King into 
cover, opens the diagonal for the King's 
Bishop, and opens the way for the King's 
Eook after the KB has been moved. 

For Black's thirteenth move he puts his 



100 BOW TO PLAT CBE88 

Queen on E7, which is preparatory to tak- 
ing the adverse KKt. with his Bishop. If 
White then take the Bishop with hJs KtP 
the Queen will take the Pawn, giving 
check and attacking the White King's 
Rook at the same time. White can see 
the object of Black's play so in his next 
move he must try to prevent it. (See 

DIAQBAM XI v). 
14, -J 

BxKt. 
(14) White moves his King to Bsq. 
■which puts him more under cover though 
it blocks his QR. lie gains an advantage, ^ 
however, for by moving from the diagonal 
commanded by the adverse QB, his own 
Knight is unpinned and can be moved if 
necessary. 

Black takes the Knight with his Bishop, 
though he exposes his Bishop to capture in 
WTiite's next move, but as the two pieces 
are of about equal value, the exchange is 
even. 

,. PXB 
'QXKKt.P 

D5-,.-.ii„Googic 



PRACTIGf!,GAiIS ' ' ' ' 101 

(15) White tates-'-the Bhck p^/^i&'' ' 
his KtP, making' an even exchange for 
the losa of his Knight. 



WHITE. 

DIAGRAM XIV. 
FoBition After Black's Thirteenth Move. 

Black haa so many moves that, to an in- 
experienced player, it is doubtful which 
one is best to make. Capturing the KJiR. 



-fe;raa,tS)Bi»ctipiaj; .as it puts the Queen in 
a position to take ttree" of White's forces : 
QKt, KB, and KK, Of the three, the KB 
is protected by the KR and the QKt. is 
protected hy the QKt.P and the QE so 
they are both safe. The KR is not pro- 
tected, nor is the pawn on QKt7 so White 
must take steps to protect the more valua- 
ble, i.e., tlie KR. 
le, Cesigna. 
(16) White's Pieces and Pawna are 
now in such a poor position that even if 
he did try to protect his King's Kook, he 
would gain so little that he could not pos- 
sibly hope to win the game and, in conse- 
quence of this, he resigns and Black scores 
the game as won. 

The student should notice that in this 
game, in spite of the opening moves on 
White's part, he has been on the defensive 
side all the time. Black, on the contrary, 
has made the attack with such success that 
his adversary resigned without even wait- 
ing for the checkmate. 

D.5™t.b,Google 



CHESS OFEITINOS 

The opening moves in a game of Chess 
are of particular importance for it is in 
them that the strategy of the game is most 
clearly distinguished from mere Chess 
tactics. Each opening is intended to de- 
velop a certain theory or course of play, 
and the skill of a Chess player is indicated 
l^ his first moves, as thej are made of his 
own free will and not because his adver- 
sary forces him to take an aggressive or 
defensive position, as is often the case in 
the later development of the game. For 
^is reason, Chees openings have been a 
study of profound interest to Chess play- 
ers all over the world wherever the game 
is played, and the principal or regular 
openings are named after the Piece or 
Pawn which determines their character, 

"' ......Google 



104 BOW TO FLAT CHESS 

the peraons who invented them, or the 
countries where they were ori^nally 



It is evident to the student, therefore, 
how important it is for him to be familiar 
with the preliminary moves in a game of 
Chess, and he must give careful attention 
to the study of this chapter; following 
each play on his own board so that it will 
he perfectly clear to him and easy to re- 
member, for every successful Ohess player 
should know the openings by name when 
he has oecasion to refer to them. 

The student has already learned that 
some openings are regular and some irreg- 
ular, but it is only necessary for him to 
become familiar with the former until he 
has had much experience in practical play. 

The four most generally practiced open- 
ings are made on the King's side of the 
board, and the student should become 
thoroughly familiar with them. 

The first opening is called the king's 
knight's opening. Each player, in 
turn, moves his KP to K4 and then tho 
D.5™t.b,Googic 



CBE8S oPEmum 105 

first player moves his Kt to bis KB3. 

The second opening is called the 
kiitg'8 bishop's openisg. Each player 
in turn, moves hia KP to hia K4 and then 
the first player moves his E3 along the 
diagonal to QB4, 

The third opening ia called the 
queen's bishop's pawn's opening. 
Each player, in turn, moves his KP to 
K4 and then the first player moves his 
QBP to QB3. 

The fourth opening is called the 
king's gambit. The student will re- 
member that a gambit means the sacrifice 
of a Piece or Pawn for the sake of an ad- 
vantage that is to be gained later by the 
first player. Each player, in turn, moves 
his KP to K4 and then the first player 
moves his KEP to KB4, where it is in a 
position to be captured by the adverse 
Pawn. 

The student will note that in each of 

these openings, the first move of each 

player is identical, i.e., the KP to K4. 

This opening move clears the way for the 

D5-,z,tb,Googie 



106 BOW TO FLAY CBESa 

King, the Queen, and the King's Bishop, 
if the player cares to develop them. Each 
of these openings has a number of raria- 
tions in the plays which follow, and these 
variations are recognized and given spe- 
cific names, with which the student must 
become familiar. 

The King's Kkioht's Opbitinq. 

The most important, and hence to be 
considered first, is the King's Kni^t's 
Opffliing which has ten recognized varia- 
tions. In notating them, it will be under- 
stood that White plays first and his moves 
will be recorded in the first column. Un- 
fortunately, lack of space prevents re- 
cording games that illustrate the develop- 
ment of these variations, but there are so 
many excellent works on the subject that 
the student who wishes to go into them 
more deeply will find ample material, for 
his purpose. 

The ten variations under the King's 
Knight's Opening are as follows :-:— 

D.5™t.b,Google 



CSESS 0PES1N08 107 

The Damianc Qamiit. — 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. Kt— KB3 P— KB3 
FMlidor'a Defmte, — 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. Kt.— KB3 P— Q3 
Fetroff'a Defense.— 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. Kt.— KB3 Kt.— KB3 

(The student will note in thia defense that each 
Pawn is protected by his Knight as each KnigM 
cominands the square occupied by bis own 

The Counter Qambil in the Knight'a Opening. — 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. Kt.— KB3 P— KB4 

(Tbe student will note that the two Blade 
Pawns occupy squares commanded by White's 
forces. This constitutes the counter gambit the 
aacriftce of a. force being made by the second 
player.) 
The Oiaoeo Piano. — 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. Kt.— B3 Kt.— QB3 

3. KB— QB4 

Captain Evans'g Qambit. — 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. Kt.— Kit* Kt.— QB3 

3. KB— QB4 KB— QB4 

4. P— qKt.4 

D.5™t.b,Google 



108 now TO PLAY CEESa 

The TicQ Knigkta' Defense. — 
i. P— K4 P— K4 

2. Et— KB3 Kt—QfiS 

3. KB— QB-l Kt— KB3 
The KnigM't Game or Buy Lopez. — 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. Kt.— KB3 Kt.— QB3 

3. KB— QKt.5 

The Queen'a PawtW Game, or Scotch Oambit.-^ 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. Kt.— KB3 Kt.— QB3 

3. P— Q4 

The Qaeen't Bishop's Paten's Game in tho 
Knight's Opening. — 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. Kt.— KB3 Kt.— QB3 

3. P— QB3 

The Eino's Bishop's Opemihq, 

The second opening, the King's Bishop's 
Opening, has seven recognized variations, 
all of which are important for the student 
to know and he will also find them of par- 
ticular interest. In the days of PhiUdor 
and his contemporaries, this was consid- 
ered the safest opening, as it demands 
no initiatory sacrifice from the first play- 
er and permits the Pawns to advance un- 



f 



CBEaS OPENINQB 109 

obstructed, but modem players give it sec- 
ond place and consider tbe King's Knight's 
Opening the safest and most effective 
means of attack. The variations under 
the King's Bishop's Opening, with their 
specific names, are : — 
The Oame of the Two Kings' Biahopa. — 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. KB— QB4 KB-QB4 
The Italian^ Defense. — 

i. P— K4 P— K4 

2. KB~QB4 KB— QB4 

3. P— QB3 Q— KKt.4 '^ 
Me DonttelPa Douile Oamhit. 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. KB— QB4 KB— QB4 
S. P— QKt.4 BXKt.P 

4. P— KB4 

The Lopes Oambit, — 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. KB— QB4 KB--QB4 

3. Q— K2 P— Q3 

4. P— KB4 

The King's Knight's Defense.— 

1. P— K4 P— K4. 

2. KB— QB4 Kt.— KB3 
The Counter Qamhit. — 

'l. P— K4 P— K4 

2. KB— QB4 P— KB4 Cooglc 



110 EOW TO PLAY CHESS 

The Queen's Bishop's Pav-ti's Defense. — 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. KB— QB4 P— QB3 

The Queek's Bishop's Opbnino. 

The Queen's Bishop's Pawn's Opening 
was a great favorite with European Chess 
players in the sixteenth century, and Ruj 
Lopez has devoted much space to it in his 
oft-quoted work on Chess. Philidor, how- 
ever, condemned it, but the Italian school 
has proved that it can safely be adopted, 
though it offers comparatively few oppor- 
tunities for striking or instructive combi- 
nations of play. The object of the open- 
ing, on the part of the first player, Is to 
occupy the center of the board with his 
Pawns rather than to develop his Pieces. 
The variations have no specific names, but 
to illustrate this opening tlie student 
should study the following preliminary 
moves from games played by famous Chess 
players. Only the first four moves of each 
player are given. 

D.5™t.b,Google 



2. P— QB3 


Kt— KB3 


3. P-Q4 


PXP 


4. P— K6 


Kt.— K5 


STAunroiT (white) vebsus 


COCHBAN (black). 


WHITS. 


BLACK. 


1. P— K4 


P— K4 


2. P— QB3 


P— Q4 


3. Kt.— KB3 


Kt.— KB3 


4. KKtXP 


KKtXP 


WALKER (WHITE) VERSUa B' 


r. AMA«T (BLACK). 


1. P— K4 


P— K4. 


2. P— <JB3 


P-Q4 


3. PXP 


QXP 


4. Kt.— KB3. 


KB— QB4 



In tlie game between Captain Evans 
and the amateur, Captain Evans was the 
victor ; in the game between Staunton and 
Cochran, Staunton won ; and in the game 
between Walker and St. Amant, St. Amant 



D.5™t.b,Google 



112 BOW TO FLAY CBESa 

The Kino's Gambit, 

The King's Gambit, the fourth of the 
principal openings, is the delight of the 
Chess player's heart as it affords oppor- 
tunities for the moet intricate and scien- 
tific combinations to which Chessmen are 
subject, and their study gives the student 
an almost unlimited fund of instruction 
and entertainment. 

The variations of the King's Gambit, 
with their specific names, are : 

The Kin^e Gambit (Proper). — 

1. P— K4 P~K4 

2. P— KB4 PXP 
The King's Knight's Qambtt. — 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. P— KB4 PXP 
8. Kt.— KB3 

The Ctinninghatn Oambit. — 

1. P~K4 P~K4 

2. P~KB4 PXP 

3. Kt.— KB3 B~K3 

The Balvio and Cochrane Oambit,— 

1. P— K4 P— K4 

2. P— KB4 PXP 

3. Kt.— KB3 P— KKt.4 

Lioogic 



CHESS OPENINGB 



4. 


, KB— <1B4 


P— KKt.6 


S. 


KKt.— K6 


Q— RG (ch.) 


6, 


, (According to Coch- 






rane) K-Baq. 


P— KB6 


6. 


(According to SalvioJ 






K— Esq. 


Kt.-KBBq. or ^3 




The Mitsio Gambit.— 




1. 


, P— K4 


P— K4 


2. 


, P— KB4 


PXP 


3. 


, KT.— KB3 


P— KKt.4 


4. 


KB— (JB4 


P— KKt.5 


6. 


0—0, or P— g4 
n« AOgaier OamUt.- 


PXKt. 


1. 


P— K4 


P— K4 


2 


P— KB4 


PXP 


3. 


Kt.— KB3 


P— KKW 


i. 


P— KR4 






The King's Book's Paiwi's Oambit.— 


1. 


P— K4 


P— K4 


2. 
3. 


P— KB4 
P— KB4 


PXP 




The King's Bishop's Qiunhil.— 


1. 


V—Ki 


P-K4 


2. 


P— KB4 


PXP 


3. 


KB— QB4 





Thd Gambit Declined. 

When the Gambit is declined Black's 
second move is generally one of tlie fol- 
lowing: Lioogie 



114 BOW TO FLAY CBE8S 

KB— QB4, P— Q3, or P— Q4. 

The second move is objectionable, as it 
confines the King's Bishop, a Piece that 
the student will learn to use with advaU' 
tage. 

The Queen's Gambit. 
Another Cheaa opening, with which the 
student should be familiar, is the 
queen's qambit. While it requires less 
skill and brilliancy of plaj than the 
King's Gambit, it is improving for the 
student to study, as it offers Mm practice 
in accuracy of play. It is notated 
thus : — 

1. P— 04 P-Q4 

2. P— QB4 PXP 

When the Queen's Gambit is declined. 
Black's second move is generally one of 
the following: — 

P— K3, P— QB3, or P— KB3. 

Ikeeoui-ae Openings. 

Before leaving the subject of openings, 

a word may be said of irseouiae open- 

D.5™t.b,Googic 



OBBBB OFESmOS 115 

INOS. They are generally recognized 
aa those in which the first move of 
each player is some other than P — K4, or 
P — Q4. Stauntcsi, however, classifies 
them as those of attack, in which the first 
player's first move is either P — CB4 op 
P — QB4 and those of defence in which 
the second player, in answering the first 
player's first move, P — K4 or P — Q4, 
moves his P— K3, P— QB4, P— KB4, or 
P— QktS. 



D.5™t.b,Google 



CHAPTEE XI 

BND OAUBS 

The student cannot give too much time 
to the study of End Games, for it is here 
that be can put to the test the information 
that he has acquired in studying the ele- 
mentary principles of play. The End 
Game, he will remember, ia the third di- 
vision of a game of Chess when there are 
BO few Pieces and Pawns upon the board 
that theoretical analysis of the moves has 
again become possible. All games, how- 
ever, do not reach this stage, as it fre- 
quently happens that checkmate is given 
by a strong combination of forces after the 
opening moves, when the Pieces and 
Pawns are so far developed that the analy- 
sis of the moves which characterized the 
opening are no longer possible; but the 
student need not devote hia time to this 



END QAMEB 117 

part of the game, aa it ia treated in a later 
chapter. 

To illustrate the science of manipulat- 
ing the Chessmen, when there are only a 
few left .on the board, the following ex- 
amples have been selected from standard 
works on the subject If the student has 
made a careful study of the contents of 
the preceding chapters, he will have no 
difficulty in following the moves and in 
understanding the reasons for making 
them. 

The student should have his board set 
up for each example as indicated so that 
he can follow each move. 



Example I. — ^Whitb King and Qoeen 
Aqaihst Black Kino. 

The Black King occupies K4, the White 
King Q3, and the White Queen Qaq, as 
indicated on diagsam xv. 

White has the first move and the stu- 
dent will see that his best plan of attack is 
to drive the adverse King into a «omer 



118 HOW TO FLAT CBEBa 

or to the aide of the board, bring his own 
King as close as possible, and give cbeck 



DIAGRAM XV. 
END GAME, EXAMPLE I. 
King and Queen Againet King. 

with his Queen. As Black holds the cen- 
ter of- the board, his position is as good aa 



END QAMEB 119 

possible, considering the odds. White 
must he careful not to give stalemate. 
The game is won by White in nine moves 

and is notated thus: — 

WHITK. BL&OK. 

1. (l-Kt.4 K— Q4 

2. Q— K4(eh.) 

3. Q— Q4 (eh.) 

4. K— B4 
fl. Q-Q6 
fi. K— Kt.6 

7. Q-Q7 (ch.) 

8. K— Kt.6 

9. Q— QS, (mate). 

The student will note that, for White's 
ninth play, there were four other moves 
which he might have made, all of which 
would have enabled him to win the game ; 
they are Q— Kt. 7, Q— B8, Q— Q8 or 
Q— KS. 

This example of an End Game illus- 
trates the importance of the Queen as a 
mating force, and also illustrates, to the 
student, how important it is for him to 
protect her so that he can use her in jvat 



K- 


-B3 


K- 


~Kt.2 


K- 


-R2 


K- 


-Kt.2 


K- 


-Kt. 


K- 


-Rsq- 



120 BOW TO I'LAY CBESa 

such methods of attack as were seen in 
the moves just notated. Black, having 
neither a Piece nor a Pawn on the board, 
could only hop© to win by a drawn game 
if White had given a stalemate. 

Example II. — White Kino and Rook 
Agaiitst Black Kino. 

The Bladi King occupies QKt.4, the 
White King QKt. sq., and the White 
Hook QKsq,, as indicated on diagbau xvi. 

This example illuatratea the strength of 
the Eook as a mating force and, as in the 
former example, White's method of attack 
is to comer the adverse King. The posi- 
tion is in White's favor, as Black is al- 
ready near the side of the hoard. The 
moves of the Rook, however, are more re- 
stricted than those of the Queen, so it 
takes eleven moves before White can give 
checkmate. The game is notated thus: — 

WHITE. BI.ACK. 

1. K— Kt.2 K— B5 

2. R— Qaq.! K— B4 

3. K— B3 K— Kt.4 

I ..Googic 



WHm. 

4. R— Q5 (ch.) 
6. K— B4 

6. R— 06 (oh.) 

7. K— B6 



DIAGRAM XVI. 
END GAME, EXAMPLE II. 
King and Rook agoinat King, 

8. R— Q7 (ch.) K— Ra 

9. K— B6. K— R4 

10. R— Q4 K— Ra, Coogic 

11. R— R4, (mate). 



122 BOW TO PLAY CBE88 

If the Student will go over these moves 
again, he will see that White, in his sec- 
ond turn, could have given check by play- 
ing R — QBsq., but that would have forced 
the King to play to Q5, which would 
have enabled him to get into tiie center 
of the board, which ia just where White 
did not want him; hence the move K — 
Qsq. was an excellent play. The stu- 
dent also sees that Black's ninth and tenth 
moves were forced moves, as White had 
left him no choice. While illustrating the 
use of the Bodi in the End Game, this 
example also shows the stud^it that it 
is sometimes better to let what appears 
to be a good move go by, for if White had 
taken advantage of his opportunity to give 
check it would have taken him a long time 
to force his adversary to the side of the 
board again. When the player has a 
dioice of moves he should always consider 
the consequences and deliberate carefully 
before he plays. 



D.5™t.b,Google 



END GAMES 123 

ExAUPLs III. — White Kino, Bishop 

AND Knioht Against Black 

King and Pawn. 

The White King occupies QB6, the 
White Bishop Q6, the White Knight Q7, 
the Black King QR3 and the Black Pawn 
QKt.4, as indicated on diagkam xvii. 

The Knight is generally used to beet 
advantage in lie Middle Game, as his 
progress is not hampered by intervening 
forces, but in this illustration of an End 
Game, he is used most successfully in eon- 
junction with the Bishop. The student 
will see that Black's only hope lies in 
queening his Pawn, for then he will be as 
well off as if he had not already lost his 
Queen. His efforta are in vain, however, 
for White wins in six moves. The game 
is notated thus : — 

WHITE. BLACK, 

1. B— Kt.4 K— R2 

2. B— B5 (ch.) K— R.! 
8. K— Kt.a P— Kt.5 
4. K— R6 P— Kt.9 
6. B— Qa P— Kt.7 

8 Kt— Kt. 6, (mate). , - , 

' ' D5-,.-..l„C-.OOgiC 



124 HOW TO FLAY CSE8B 

This example also illustrates White's 
attacking method of forcing his Opponent 



WQTTB, 

DIAGRAM XVII. 

END GAME, EXAMPLE III. 

King, Bishop, and Knight against King and Pawn. 

into the corner in order to checkmate him. 

D.5™t.b,Google 



SND 6AUB8 126 

EsAUPLB IV. — White King ahd Paww 
AaAiNsr Blace Kiira. 

The White King occupies Kaq., the 
White Pawn KS, and the Black King 
Ksq., 88 indicated on stAasAu xviu. 

The student will note that both Kings 
occupy their original positions at the be- 
ginning of the game. White has the ad- 
vantage, having a Pawn, but his success 
depends upon his ability to queen it. 
This illustration is interesting, as it takes 
White twelve moves in order to win, 
when he plays first ; while if Black has the 
first move, White gives stalemate in the 
fifteenth move and the game is a draw. 
If White moves first the game is notated 



Google 



WHITE. 


BLACK. 


I. K— B2 


K— Bsq. 


2. K— K3 


K— K2 


3. K— K4 


K— K3 


4. P— K3 


K-Q3 


E. K— B5 


K— K2 


6. K— K5 


K— B2 


7. K— Q8 


K— 33 


8. P-K4 


K— B2 



HOW TO PLAT CBESa 



ITHITB, 


BLACK. 


». P— K5 


K— Ksq. 


10. K— K6 


K-Bsq. 


11. K-<i7 


K— B2 


12. P— K6(eh.) 


Resigna 


BLACK. 





VHITE. 

DIAGKAM XVIII. 

END GAME, EXAMPLE IV. 

King and Pawn against King. 

Black has to move to avoid the check 

nnd as White can Queen his Pawn in two 



ESD OAMEa 127 

moves and as the White King is so situ- 
ated that he protects the Pawn until it is 
Queened, there is nothing of advantage to 
Black that he can do. 

If Black had had the first move, the 
game would have resulted in a stalemate 
after White's fifteenth move. It is no- 
tated thus: — 



2. K— B2 


K— B3 


3. E— E3 


K— K4 


4. K— Q3 


K-Q4 


6. P— K4 (ch.) 


K— K4 


6. K— K3 


K— K3 


7. K— B4 


K— B3 


8. P— K5 (ch.) 


K— K3 


9. K— K4 


K— K2 


10. K— QS 


K-Q2 


11. P— Ka (eh.) 


K— K2 


12. K— K5 


K-K8q. 


13. K— B6 


K— Esq. 


14. P— K7(eh.) 


K-Ksq. 



16. K— K6 (stalemate). 

ExAMFLB V. — White King and Two 
Bishops Against Black King. 
The White King occupies Ksq., the 
White King's Bishop KBsq., the White 



128 BOW TO PLAT CBE88 

Queen's Bishop QBsq. and the Black King 
IKsq., aa indicated on diaobam xix. 



DIAGRAM XIX. 

END GAME, EXAMPLE V. 

King and Two Bishopg against King. 

The student will note that each Piece 
occupies its original position at the begin- 



END GAMES 129 

ning of the game. White's method of at- 
tack is to force his adversary into a cor- 
ner square or into one that adjoins a cor- 
ner and then checkmate with the Bishop 
that is on the square in the same diag- 
onal. White can accomplish this in four- 
teen moves. The game is notated thus : — 



WHITE. 


TSLLCK. 


1. B— KR3 


K-q»q- 


2. B— KB4 


K-K2 


3. K— K2 


K— KB3 


4. K— KB3 


K-K2 


6. B— KB5 


K— KB3 


6. K— KKt.4 


K-K2 


7. K— KKt.5 


K-Qsq. 


8. K— KB6 


K-Kaq. 


e. B— QB7 


K-B«|. 


10. B— Q7 


K-Ktjiq. 


11. K— KKt6 


K-B«|. 


12. B-<}6(ch.) 


K-Kt.Bq. 


13. B— K8(cli.) 


K-E.q. 



14. B— K5 (mate). 

The possibiliti^ for Black to win in 
this game are so small that the only thing 
for him to do is to move back and forth, 
postponing White's victory as long as pos- 
sible. There are many instances, how- 



130 BOW TO PLAT CHE8B 

ever, where the odds are in favor of one 
player, which result in a drawn game be- 
cause the lone King cannot be forced from 
Bome advantageous position that he has 
gained. 

Example VI. — White King, Bishop 
AND Pawn Against Black King. 

The White King occupies KB4, the 
White Bishop K2, the White Pawn KR5 
and the Black King Qsq., as indicated on 
diaobam zz. 

This Example illustrates a drawn game, 
White having the advantage in numbers 
and Black the advantage in position. Un- 
like most of the other illustrative End 
Game positions, White's hope of winning 
lies in his ability to keep the adverse King 
from getting in a comer and this is just 
what, he succeeds in doing. The game is 
drawn after Black's fifth move. Black 
plays first. The game is notated thus: — ■ 



.ioogie 





EUD OAMEB 


WHITE. 


BLACK. 


3. B— Q5 


K— Kt.2 


4. K~Kt.5 


K— Esq. 


5. P— E6 


K— R2 



DIAGRAM XX. 

END GAME, EXAMPLE VI. 

King, Bishop and Pawn against King. 

Aa 'VVTiite cannot force Blacfc toleavic 

i_. , . , t.,oo>;r 

his comer, the game la drawn. '-^ 



CHAPTER XII 

IflDDLK OAUES 

The Middle Game, as the student has 
already learned, is that stage of a game of 
Chess when the Pieces and Pawns are so 
far developed that theoretical analysis is no 
longer possible, as it was in the opening 
moves. At this point, all of the player's 
skill in the art and science of combina- 
tion is put to the test and many of the 
most brilliant Cbesa players are able to 
give mate without letting the game reach 
what the student has already learned to 
be End Qame positions. It is of particu- 
lar importance, therefore, for the student 
to give the contents of this chapter care- 
ful attention, following the moves on his 
own board and studying out variations for 
himself. Only in this way can he mas- 
132 D5-,.-..i„Googic 



MIDDLE QAMEB 133 

ter the diflBcultiea which confront the ama- 
teur in Middle Game positions. 

The student should arrange his board 
for each example as indicated in the dia- 
GBAMs and follow each move. 

Example I. — Position developed from 
a Euy Lopez Qambit 

White's forces should be arranged thus: 
K on KKt.Bq., B on QKtS, Kt. on KB, 
Es on QBsq., and Qsq., Ps on KR2, 
KKt2, KB3, QB4 and QKt.5. 

Black's forces should be arranged thus : 
K on KBsq., Kt8. on KB3, and K2, Rs on 
Esq. and QR2 and Pa on KR3, KKt.2, 
EB4, QKt.3, and QE4. (See diagram 
xn.) 

White has the first move and wins after 
his ninth move aa Black resigns. The 
game is notated thus: 





BLACK. 


1. P— B6! 


PXP 


2. R— <i6l 


H— Kt.8q 


8.QR-Q9q. 


R(R2)— Rsq 


4. P— Kt.6 


P— R5 


6. BXP 


K— Ktjq. 


«. Kt^Be 


KtXKt..Coogie 



t HOW TO FLAT CBE8B 

WHITE. BIACK. 

7. BXKt. (dis. eh.). Kt— Ksq. 

8. P— Kt.7I R— R2 

9. B— Q8. Eesignfl. 



White has to make the most of the posi- 
tion of the adverse King, which he does 
most successfully in his first four moves. 



MIDDLE QiMES 135 

though in bis fifth move be might have 
played B — ^B4, still holding the King, 
Tfhich would have been even stronger than 
the move he made. His eighth move, 
however, is good and he wins easily after 
bis ninth play as Black cannot escape. 

Example II. — From a match between 
Morphy and Harrwitz. It la considered 
a model of its kind and unsurpassed in 
the history of the game. 

White's forces should be arranged thus: 
K on KKt.sq., E on QKt.8, Kt. on Q8, 
and Ps on QE3, Q5, K3, KB4, KKt.2 
and KB2. 

Black's forces Hhould be arranged thus : 
K on K2, B on Q2, R on QE3 and Ps 
on QB4, Q3, K5, KB4, KKt.2 and KR5. 
(See DIAGRAM xxn.) 

Black (Morphy) has the first move and 
vrins. The Game is notated thus : 



2. K— B2 

3. K— K2 

4. Kt.— Ba(ch.) 



HOW TO PLAY CEE8B 



B. PXB 

6. K— Q2 

7. K— Baq. 



DIAGRAM XXII. 
MIDDLE GAME, EXAMPLE II. 

8. R— Kt.3 K— B3 

9. R— R3 P— Kt.* 

10. P— Kt.3 RPXP >..i00gic 



MIDDLE QAMES 

WHITE. BLACK. 

11. RPXP PXP 

12. KtPXP K— KT.3 

13. R— R5 R— B4 

14. R— Rfl R— B6 

15. RXP(eh.) K— R4 

16. R— Q2 K— Kt.5 

17. R— Kt.2(ch,) K— B« 

18. R— Kt.5 R— B4 
IS. R— R5 KXP 

20. R— R4 K— B8, etc. ■ 
sing easily. 



The student will note that Black has 
made such brilliant combinations with his 
forces that, there is almost nothing for 
White to do but move his Eook back and 
forth from one square to another. 

Example III. — Position developed 
from & Ruy Lopez Gambit. 

White's forces should be arranged 
thus:— K on KRsq., Q on QB4, E on 
Qsq., Kt. on Q5 and Ps on KR2, KKt.2 
KB3, K4, QKt.3 and QE2. 

Black's forces should he arranged 
thus: — K on KKt.aq., Q on Qsq., R on 
QBsq., Kt. on Q5 and Ps on Kr2, KEL'^jc 



138 BOW TO PLAY CEESa 

KB2, Q3, QB4 and QR4. (See diaobam 

XXIII.) 



DIAGRAM XXIII. 
MIDDLE GAME, EXAMPLE IIL 

White has the first move and wing for 
Black's position is hopelesa after White's 
ninth move. The game is notated thus : — 



MIDDLE GAMES 


WHITE. 


BLACK. 


1. RXKt.! 


PXR 


2. Kt— K7(ch.)I 


QXKt. 


3. Q!XR(ch.) 


a-BBii. 


4. QXQ(ch.) 


KXQ 


6. K— Kt^q. 


K— K2 


a. K-B2 


P-Q4 


7. P— K5 


K— K3 


8. K— K2 


KXP 


9. K— Q3 and wins. 





The student will note that, for White's 
second play, he mig^t have moved Q X ^ 
but if he had made that play, although 
he would have captured an adverse Piece, 
it would have lost him the game. 

ExAMFLB . IV. — Position developed 
from a Giuoco Piano. 

White's forces should he arranged 
thus:— K on KBeq., Q on ES, Ks on K8 
and KB5, B on Qkt.3, and Ps on KK4, 
KKt.3, K4, QB3, QKt.4, and QE2. 

Black's forces should be arranged 
thus:— K on KR3, Q on KKt. 3, Rs on 
KKt.5 and Q7, Kt. on KR2, and Ps on 
KR4, KB2, QB2, QKt.2 and QKt.3. 

(See DIAQBAM XXIV.) D5-,.-.ii„GoO«iic 



L40 HOW TO PLAT CSEBB 

White plays first and wins. The game 
s notated thus: — 



DIAGRAM XSrV. 
MIDDLE GAME, EXAMPLE IV. 



1. R— KKt.8! QXR 

2. RxP(ch.) K— KKt3 

3. Q— KB5(ch.) K— KKt2 



MIDDLE QAUEB 141 

WHITE. BLACK. 

4. QXRfch.) K— Raq. 

6. Q— KB4 Q— Qsq. 
e. B-<i5 R— QKt.T 

7. QXKBP and wins. 

The student will see that White made 
splendid combinatioDS with hia forces so 
that Slack was quite powerless to resist 
them. Under the circumstances, Black 
did the best he could. 

Example Y. — Game developed from a 
Lopez Gambit and played between Mac- 
kenzie and Steinitz. 

White's forces should be arranged 
thus:— K on KEsq., Q on KB2, R on 
KBsq., Bs on KKt.5 and QB2 and Ps on 
KI12, KKt2, QB3, QKt2 and QR2. 

Black's forces should be arranged 
thus:— K on EKtsq., Q on QB3, R on 
Esq., Bs on KEt2, and QKt.2, and Ps 
on KK2, KKt.3, KB2, Q4, QB5, QKt.4 
and QR3. (See diagram xxv.) 

Black plays first and the game results in 
perpetual check after White's sixth .move. 
The game is notated thus: — ' --^ 



BOW TO FLAY CBB88 



1 


P— Q6T 


2. PXP 


BXP 


8. <iXP{ch.> 


K-KEi 



4. B— K4I QXB 

5. B— B8(ch.) BXB 

6. QXB(ch.) 

D5-,z,tb,GOOgiC 



MIDDLE GAMES 143 

This example of a Middle Game posi- 
tion resulting in a perpetual check is most 
ingenioua and mnst have been wholly un- 
expected to the players. While Black had 
the original advantage, he lost it by his 
first move. His object, evidently, was to 
queen his Pawn, but his first move was 
weak and caused him to lose what he had 
gained hy his opening moves. 

ExAMPtE VI. — Illustrates the advan- 
tages and disadvantages of open files. 

White's forces should be arranged 
thus :— K on QBaq., Q on QB4, Kt on 
KI14, Rs on KRBq. and Qsq., and Pa on 
KKt2, KKt.4, K5, QB3 and QIt2. 

Black's forces should be arranged 
thus:— K on KRsq., Q on KB2, Kt. on 
QR3, Ea on QEsq. and KBsq., and Ps 
on KE2, KKt.3, QB3, QKt.2 and QE2. 

(See DIAOKAM ZXVI.) 

The student will note from the position 
of White's King that the player has evi- 
dently castled with hia QK. White plays 

D.5™t.b,Google 



144 HOW TO PLAT CHESS 

first and mates in five moves. The game 
is notated thus: — 



DIAGRAM XXVI. 
MIDDLE GAME, EXAMPLE VI. 



1. QR— Bsq. 


QXQ 


2. Et.— Kt.fl(ch.) 


K— Kteq. 




D, -,.... ..Googic 



MIDDLE OAME8 145 

WHITE. BLACK.. 

3. Kt.— K7(eli.) K— Raq. 

4. RXP(ch.) KXK 

5. R — Rsq. (mate). 

The error in Black's play was to take 
the adverse Queen, as it made an opening 
in the guard of his King that he could not 
repair. The open files were an advantage 
to White, but they were fatal to Black. 

Example VII. — Position developed 
from a PetrofPa (Russian) Defense- 
White's forces should he arranged 
thus:— K on KKtaq., Q on QKt.7, QKt. 
on QKt.sq., KKl on KB3, QB on QBsq., 
KB on Q3 and Ps on KE2, KKt.2, KB2, 
Q4, QKt2 and QE2. 

Black's forces should be arranged 
thus: — K on KKtsq., Q on Qsq., Es on 
QRsq. and KBsq., Kts. on K5 and Q2, Bs 
on Q3 and K3, and Ps on KE2, KKt.2, 
KB4, QB5, QB2 and QK2. (See dia- 

GBAH SXVII.) 

White plays first, but Black wins. The 
game ia notated thus : — ^ „ Goo«;lc 



BOW TO PLAY CBESB 



1. BXKt. QR— KUq. 

2. QXRP PXB 

3. Kt— Kt.5 B— Q4 



DIAGKAM XXVri. 
MIDDLE GAME, EXAMPLE VII. 





Q- 


-R5 


Kt. 


— B3 




6. 


Q- 


-B3 


P- 


-R3 




6. 


Kt 


.— KR3 


Kt. 


—Kt.5 

Coo<\ 


iic 



MIDDLE GAMES 147 

THTTE. BLACK. 

7. P— KKt.3 Q— Kaq. 

8. Kt.— B4 BXKt. 

9. BXB Q— B4 

10. P— KE4 ExBr 

11. PXR P— Ka 

12. P— B3 QXRP and wins. 

White made a poor play in his second 
move by taking the Pawn. He should 
have moved to QR6, after which the 
Queen could have been played to QE4 and 
■with the Knight on QKtsq., a good attack 
could have been developed. The capture, 
however, only lost time and enabled Black 
to gather his forces for an attack on the 
White King. As it is, White has to try 
to save his Queen and cannot develop his 
QKt. The student will note, in going 
over the moves in this game, that White 
does not give check once, and that Black 
&ho gathers his forces for the attack in 
such a way that he does not give check un- 
til there is no escape for his adversary. 
Black's moves are carefully made and 
should be studied. 

D5-,.-.ii„Googic 



CHAPTER XIII 

CONCLCSION 

When the student has reached this con- 
cluding chapter, he should have a thor- 
ough knowledge of the general principles 
of the moves, and understand the laws of 
the game. He should also be sufficiently 
familiar vrith the Openings and with End 
and Middle Game positions to meet, and 
compete favorably, with the average Chess 
player. In fact, there is no elementary 
point that can be discussed in a hand hook 
on the game, that has not been explained 
and illustrated. But for that skill and 
scientific knowledge that distinguishes 
the professional from the amateur, he 
must play frequently with experienced 
players and also study the books that are 
devoted to some one particular feature of 
the game. A number of titles are given 
148 



OOSOWBIOV 149 

in die Bibliography which will prove help- 
ful to the student who wisheB to go more 
deeply into the fluhject. 

Before closing, howeyer, the studeiat 
may be interested in working out some 
CbesB problems for himself, and for this 
reason several have been selected from 
Cnrioua Chess Problfflns in one of Staun- 
ton's books. 

If the student cannot solve these proV 
lems, after he has given them a fair trial, 
he will find a Key following them. 

Chess Fbobi^bhs. 

Pkoblbm I. — White, playing first, 
mates in seven moves. 

White's forces should be arranged 
thus; — K on Qsq., Kts. on QKt.3, and 
KB7, B on QKt.7, and Ps on QE2, 
QKt.2, K4, EB2, and KEt.7. 

Black's forces should be arranged 
thus:— K on QB5, R on KKtsq., Kt. on 
QB2, B on QKt.8q., and Ps on QKt.5, 
QB4, K4, and KBS. 

D.5-,z,t.b,GOOgiC 



150 BOW TO PLAY CBES8 

PfiOBLEM II. — White, playing first, 
compels Black to mate him in fourteen 

White's forces should be arranged 
thus :— E on KRsq., Q on QKt.3, Its on 
QKt.sq. and QEaq., Kts on QKt.8 and 
QB5, Bs on QB3 and Kfi5, and Pa on 
Q2, KE4, KKt.2 and KR2. 

Black's forces should be arranged 
thus : — K on Ksq,, Q on K8, Kts. on 
QBsq. and KKt.8, Ba on QK4 and KK6, 
Es on K5 and KB6, and Ps on Q6 and 
KB2. 

Pboblem III. — White, playing first, 
mates in six moves. 

Black's forces should be arranged 
thus : — K on QB^q., Ba on QBsq. and 
KE5, Kt. on K2, and Ps on QR2 and 
KKt.6. 

White's forces should be arranged 
thus:— K on KRsq., B on KKt.2, R on 
Q5, Kt. on QBC, and Ps on QE6, QKt.6, 
KKt.4 and KR3. 

Problem IV. — Whit«, playing first, 
compels Black to mate him in eight moves. 



00SCLV8I0S 151 

"Wliite'a foTcee elioald be arranged 
thus: — K on Ksq., Q on K8, Kts. on 
KKt.3 and Q4, Kb on QEsq. and K7, Bs 
on QR2 and KB8, and Pa on KB2, K5, 
.QB2 and QKt.2. 

Black's forces should be arranged 
thua:— K on QK3, Q on QB5., Kts. on 
QKt. 2 and Q4, Ra on Q3 and QR5, and 
Pb on KKt.5 and KB6. 

Peoblhu V. — White, playing first, 
mates in four moyes. 

White's forces should be arranged 
thus: — K on Esq., B on QRsq., B on 
QKt.4, Kts. on QKt.7 and Q7 and Ps on 
QB6 and QKt.3. 

Black's forces should be arranged 
thus: — K on K3, K on KB4, Kt on 
iKE5, Bs on KE.6 and KKt.8, and Ps on 
KB6 and K5. 

In trying to solve these Problems, the 
etaident will find it helpful to notate his 
moves each time he tries, as it will save 
him from repetition and will also help him 
to find where his judgment has been at 
fault if he fails. D5-,.-..i„Goo«iic 



HOW TO PLAT 0HE8B 

Eet to OHEaa PbobI/BUs. 

Pbobleii L 
white. black. 

1. Kt.— Q6(ch.) K— 06 

2. P— QR3 R— Qsq. 

3. P— EKt.8 (Bec<HiiM KXQ 

a Queen) 



4. Kt.— QBBq.(ch.) 


E removefi. 


6. K— Q2. 


P— QBS 


«. QRPXP 


Where he wUL 


7. Mates. 




Pboblbm 


IL 


1. QXP(<:h.) 


K-Qsq. 


2. BXB(cb.) 


Kt.— QKt.3 


3. BXKt.(ch.) 


K-QBsq. 


4. Q— KB8(cb.) 


R-K«i. 


6. QKB(cb.) 


QXQ 


8. Kt.oiiB6— (i7<die 


1. K— Kt.2 


ch.) 




7. BXKt. (dlB.cli.) 


K-Esq. 


8. BXR(eli.) 


Q Interposes. 


9. PXB 


Q-Q4 


10. B~K4 


Q-QB3 


11. B— Q4 


(J-QKt2 


12. E-Qaq. 


Q-QB3 


13. Kt^-QR6 


Q~Kt.2 


1*. B— QR« 


QxB (Forced move. 




(mate) 


Problem III. 


1. P— QKt.7(eh.) 


BXP 


2. R— 07 


Kt.XKt.l.;oogic 



COSCLUSIOS 



3. BXB 




Kt.-QKi. 


4. E— QKtsq.(diB, 


d..) 


Kt.— QKt2 


B. EXKt. 




Where ha wiU. 


6. R— QKt.8q(di8, 


ch.) 




MBte. 






Pboblem. it. 


1. Q— QE8(ch.) 




K— Kt.3 


2. RXKt.(ch.> 




E lemovei. 


3. BxR(a.) 




KXKt. 


4. 0— 0— 0(ch.) 




Q-Q6 


6. QXB(ch.) 




Kt.— QKt.5 


6. K— Kt.Bq. 




Q-Q71 


7. P— <JB3(di.) 




K-QS 


8. QxKt. 




QXB (Hate) 
(Foroad move) 


PwmiXM V. 


I. Kt-<J8(ch.J 




K-Q4 


2. 0— 0— 0<ch.) 




B interpoaes 


3. B—QB5 




Any more. 


4. RXB (mate). 







EzAUPLEs OF Mabtbb-Piay. 

The importance of going over examples 
of master-play has already been impressed 
upon the student and, for this reason, sev- 
eral games have been selected that the stu- 
dent should play over on his own board. 
He should have no difficulty in seeing why 



154 HOW TO PLAY CBB88 

each move is made and in understanding 
the methods of attack and defense that are 
used, 

ExAMPLB I. — Opened with a Fianchet- 
to Defense, and played between Paulsen 
(White) and "Alter" (Black), in Lon- 
don in 1862. 

White plays first and gives mate with 
his twenty-fourth move. The game ia no- 
tated thus: — 



WHITE. 


BLA.CK. 


1. P— K4. 


P— 43Kt3. 


2. P— KKt3. 


P— K3. 


3. B— Kt2. 


B— Kt2. 


4. Kt— QB3. 


P— KB4. 


5. KKt— K2. 


Kt— KB3. 


a. P-Q3. 


B— KtB. 


7. O-O. 


BXKt. 


8. KtXB. 


PXP. 


9. KtXP. 


KtXKt. 


10. <J-E5(a.) 


P— Kt3. 


11. Q— K5. 


0—0. 


12. PXKt. 


Kt— QB3. 


13. Q— B3. 


P— K4. 


14. B— R«. 


E— B2. 


15. P— B4. 


B— R3. 


16. PXP. 


BXR. 



D.5™t.b,Goog[c 



coNCLVaioii 



17. RXB. , 

18. EXR. 
1». P— Ka. 

20. PXP. 

21. B— K3. 

22. QXP- 

23. P queens (ch.) 

24. Q— Kt7(inate). 



BLACK. 

Q— K2. 
QXS. 
Q— K2. 
Kt— K4. 
P— KKM. 
P— KtS. 
QXQ. 



ExAMPLB II. — Opened with a King's 
Bishop's Gamhit, and played between Kie- 
seritzky (White) and Andersaen (Black). 

White plays first and mates in his 
twenty-third move. The game is notated 
thus : — 



WHTTI. 


BUCK. 


1. P— K4. 


P— K4 


2. P— KB4. 


PXP. 


3. B— B4. 


Q— RS(di.), 


4. K-Bsq. 


P— QKt4. 


5. BXKtP. 


Kt— KB3. 


6. Kt— KB3. 


(^-R3. 


7. P— Q3. 


Kt— R4. 


8. K^-R4. 


Q— KU. 


0. Kt— B5. 


P— QB3. 


10. P— KKt4. 


Kt— B3. 


11. R— Ktaq. 


PXB. 


12. P— KR4. 


Q— Kt3. 


13. P— B5. 


Q-KU. 



BOW TO PLAY CBEB8 



14. Q— B3. 


Kt— Kt»q. 


16. BXP. 


Q— B3. 


16. K^-B3. 


B— B4. 


17. Kt-^5. 


QXP. 


18. R-Cfi. 


BXR. 


19. P— KB. 


QXR(ch.) 


20. K— K2. 


Kt-<JR3. 


21. KtxP(eh.). 


K-Qsq. 


22. Q— Be(ch.) 




Mates in next mo 


«. 



This game is cODsidered one of the most 
brilliant on record and is known among 
Chess players as the " Immortal Game." 

Example III. — Opened from a Guioco 
Piano and played between Neuman 
(Whitfi) and Von Guretzky-Comitz 
(Black), in Berlin in 1863. 

White plays first, and after seventeen 
moves, Black resigns. The game is no- 
tated thus : — 



2. BLt— KB3. 


Kt— QB3. 


3. B— B4. 


B— B4. 


4. P— B3. 


Kt-B3. 


6. P— 04. 


PXP. ^^oogk 


8. 0—0. 


KtXP. 





CONCWBION 




BUCK. 


7. PXP. 


B-K2. 


8. F—dS. 


Kt^-QKtiq. 


e. K— Ksq. 


Kt--Q3. 


10. B— Kt3. 


O-O. 


11. Kt— B3. 


Kt^Ksq. 


12. P— Q«. 


PXP. 


13. RXB. 


QXR. 


14. B— KtS. 


Kt-KB3. 


15. Kfc-QB. 


Q-Q-q. 


16. Q-Q4. 


Kt-BS. 


17. Q— QR4. 


Bedgu. 



ExAMPLB IV. — Opened with a French 
Defense and played between Blackbume 
(White) and Schwarz (Black) at the 
Berlin Congree in 1881. 

White plays first and Black resigns 
after the twenty-eighth move. The game 
la notated thus; — 



1. P— K4. 


P— K3. 


2. P-Q4. 


P-<M. 


3. Kt— QB3. 


K^-KB3. 


i. PXP. 


PXP. 


6. KU-B3. 


B-<i3. 


6. B— Q3. 


P— B3. 


7. 0—0. 


0—0. 


8. Kt— K2. 


B-KKta,-. , 


9. Kt— Kt3. 


Q-B2. '•'OOglc 



BOW TO FLAY CBE88 



WHIT*. 


BLACK. 


10. B— K3. 


QKt-Q2. 


11. Q-Q2. 


KR— K gq. 


12. QR— Kaq. 


Kt— K6. 


13. Q-BBq. 


BxKKt. 


14. PXB. 


KtXKt. 


15. RPXKt. 


BXP. 


Ifl. K— Kt2. 


B-Q3. 


17. R-*-RBq. 


Kt— Baq. 


18. R— R3. 


P— KKt3. 


19. QR— Rsq. 


QR-Qsq. 


20. B— KKt6. 


R-Q2. 


21. P— QB4. 


PXP. 


22. BXBP. 


P— KR4. 


23. R— S4. 


P— KU. 


24. B— Kt3. 


Kt— K3. 


25. B— B6. 


Kt— B5(cli.) 


26. QxKt. 


BXQ. 


27. RXP. 


PXR. 


28. RXP. 


Resigna. 



The final combination of forces in this 
game is said to be one of tbe most brilliant 
on record, and rarely surpassed iu actual 
play. 

Example V. — Opened with a Phili- 
dor'a Defense, and played between Morphy 
(White) and Allies (Black) in 1858. 

White plays first and mates in seventeen 
moves. The game is notated thui;-^-^'.'^' 



C0N0LV810S 


WHITK. 


BLACK. 


1. P— 4K. 


P— K4. 


2. K^-KB3. 


1^-03. 


3. P— 04- 


B— Kte. 


4. PXP. 


BxKt. 


B. QXB. 


PXP. 




KWKB3. 


7. Q-4iKt3. 


Q-K2. 


8. Kt~B3. 


P-B3. 


9. B-KKt6. 


P— QKM. 


10. Kt)SPJ 


PXKt 


11. BxQKtP (ch.)- 


QKt-Q2. 


12. O-O-O 


R-Qaq. 


13. RXKt. 


RXR. 


14. E-Qeq. 


Q-K3. 


15. BXR(<!b.) 


KtXB. 


16. Q— Kt8(eh.). 


KtXQ. 


17. R— Q8(mftto). 





From White's tenth move on, be plays 
a brilliant game and the student should 

study it carefully, as it shows accuracy 
and judgment 

These five examples of masterplay all 
illustrate a scientific knowledge of the 
game, and the student should play them 
over several times on his own board, as 
they will giv6 him many points on the de- 
velopment of his forces after the positioM 



160 BOW TO PLAT CBEBa 

attained hj the opeoing moves, and they 
will, also, help him in gathering his men 
t(^ether for purposes of attack and de- 
fense, 



D.5™t.b,Google 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Chess Openings. I. Gunsbei^. (Lon- 
don: George Bell & Son.) 

Chess Player's Companion. Howard 
Staunton. (New York: Macmillan Co.) 

Chess Pocket Manual. G. H. D. Gos- 
sip, (New York : Chas. Scribner'a 
Sons.) 

Chess Sparks. J". H. Ellis. (New 
York: Longmans, Green & Co.) 

Chess Strategetiea. Franklin K. 
Young. (Boston: ' Little, Brown & Co.) 

Game of Chess. P. C. Morphy. New 
York: KacmiUan Co.) 

Grand Tactics of Chess. Franklin K. 
Young. (Boston: Little, Brown & Co.) 

Minor Tactics of Chess. Franklin K. 
Young. (Boston: Little, Brown & Co.) 

Model Chess Instructor. William 
Steinmitz. (New York: G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. ) 

161 o,...,Googic 



162 HOW TO PLAY CUE88 

Principles of Chess in Theory and Prac- 
tice. James Mason. (London: Horace 
Cox.) 

Theory of Chess Openings. G. H. D. 
Gossip. (New York: rrederick Warne 
&Co.) 

Two Move Chess Problems. E. G. 
Laws. (London: George Bell & Sons.) 



D.5™t.b,Google 



D.5™t.b,Google 



b, Google 



yS 02668 






D.5™ob,Goog[c 

I 



D.5™t.b,Google